What is the difference between Hurricane and Tornado?

Storms have different names, and they are gained depending on the nature and place of their origin. 
The hottest and most dangerous storms are hurricane and tornado.
Hurricanes are storms that occur in the tropics. In the United States, they appear in areas bordering the Gulf of Mexico and along the East Coast.
However, the same kind of storm, when it appears in India and ​​China Sea, is called typhoon. 
The common name for both disasters is "tropical storm".
The area affected by the hurricane usually ranges from 150 to 600 kilometers in diameter, and hurricane winds reach speeds between 100 and 180 kilometers per hour (60 - 112 miles per hour). 
A special feature of the hurricane is that it has a quiet central part, called the "eye", with a diameter of between 8 and 25 kilometers (5 - 15 miles). 
When the "eye" crosses over an area, winds are almost dying. Sometimes it deceives people and urges them to believe that the disaster has passed. However, when the "eye" storm passes, the winds begin to blow with the same strength as before, only from the opposite direction, as the hurricane is a storm with winds that have circular motion.


The second storm of this kind is a Tornado, which varies from hurricane because its diameter is only a few hundred meters, and not more than 2 kilometers. Tornado is most commonly found in the central Mississippi River Valley in the United States. In the greater part of the area affected by the storm, a tornado appears as a black cloud of a powdery form. The area that can be touched by the tornado is several kilometers long and a few hundred meters wide - but on its way, a tornado destroys everything it finds.

Experiment for kids - changing a color of object

When you look around your home, you will see lots of different colors. Most people like to have plenty of color in their home.
Colors can make a room look bright and cheerful.

How do we see these different colors? 

White light, such as sunlight, is a mixture of the three primary colors of light— red, green, and blue.
When sunlight falls onto a white surface, we see white because all the colors are reflected back at us.
A surface which reflects no color at all looks black. 
This is because all the colors have been taken in, or absorbed, by the surface.
These sunflowers are reflecting yellow light. All the other colors in the spectrum have been absorbed by the petals.

How can we change a color?

When sunlight falls on a sunflower, the petals absorb all the colors except yellow. When you look at a sunflower, you see it as yellow because only yellow light is reflected.

How can we change the color of a sunflower without actually painting it? 

You can shine a colored light onto it.

If you shine blue light onto a sunflower, the flower will look almost black. This is because the blue light is absorbed by the flower, and not reflected by it. The sunflower cannot reflect yellow because there is no yellow in the light.
So the blue light appears to take away the sunflower's yellow color.

Changing colors experiment:

You can do some interesting experiments using a flashlight and colored plastic. The plastic must allow colored light to shine through it. We call such plastic translucent plastic.
Changing colors experiment

1. Tape a piece of colored plastic across the front of the flashlight.
Changing colors experiment - Tape a piece of colored plastic across the front of the flashlight.

2. Shine the flashlight onto each colored object in turn. Make a note of the change in color. Write down, for example, "blue light makes yellow look black."
Try using all the colored plastics on each object.
Shine the flashlight onto each colored object in turn. Make a note of the change in color. Write down, for example, "blue light makes yellow look black."  Try using all the colored plastics on each object.


What is a Hurricane, Cyclone and Typhoon - Difference between Cyclone and Hurricane

The air moving caused by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun and the Earth's own rotation is called wind. We cannot see the movement of air because the air is invisible, but it can be noticed all around us: the hats are blown away, branches from trees bend, dust or snow is blown. Winds range from light breezes to natural hazards such as hurricanes and tornadoes.

What causes winds?

Wind is caused by differences in air pressure within our atmosphere. For example if it's warm in the room and cold outside, when we open the door, the cold air will flow into the room, and the warm air will come out. The cold air is heavier and moves down and the warm air is lighter and climbs up. Thus, the air also moves freely: from the cooler areas it flows into warmer areas, and vice versa.
There are various types of winds. In winter, when it's colder on the land than at sea, cold wind blows from the land to the sea. This wind, which raises large waves in the sea, if it’s to strong it can be called storm.

What is Cyclone and Typhoon?

The winds can be very strong and they can cause great damage. In some parts of the world there are strong winds. From the Pacific ocean blows strong wind called “cyclone”, which breaks down many buildings, draws trees from the roots and rolls trucks and trains. Such a strong wind blows in China, where its name is Typhoon.
A hurricane is also a strong wind that devastates entire areas of North America.
Typhoon (cyclone) and hurricane are fast and sudden winds, which fly over one area and after a while they appear again.
There are also winds that come suddenly and disappear, and they are just considerably weaker than typhoons and hurricanes. Such winds are storms.
The storm comes abruptly and brings rainfall, and often hail (frozen rain). Storm usually comes with thunder and lightning.

What is a Tornado?

The whirlwind is also a wind which moves in circular motion; Sometimes it's so powerful that it can raise some objects. In some places, the whirlwind is even stronger and is known as the tornado.
What are trade winds?
The trade winds are the prevailing pattern of easterly surface winds found in the tropics, within the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, in the lower section of the troposphere near the Earth's equator.
The trade winds blow predominantly from the northeast in the Northern Hemisphere and from the southeast in the Southern Hemisphere, strengthening during the winter and when the Arctic oscillation is in its warm phase.
Trade winds have been used by captains of sailing ships to cross the world's oceans for centuries, and enabled European empire expansion into the Americas and trade routes to become established across the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Most tropical storms, including hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons, develop as trade winds. Differences in air pressure over the ocean cause these storms to develop. As the dense, moist winds of the storm encounter the drier winds of the coast, the storm can increase in intensity.
Strong trade winds are associated with a lack of precipitation, while weak trade winds carry rainfall far inland. The most famous rain pattern in the world, the Southeast Asian monsoon, is a seasonal, moisture-laden trade wind.
In the southern and southeast parts of Asia, monsoons blow. In winter wind blows from the land to the sea, and it's a winter monsoon, and in summer wind blows from the sea to the land, and it's summer monsoon.
Sailors and aviators pay special attention to the winds, as strong winds sometimes completely disable the flights or the sailing of ships. In meteorological stations, experts, using various devices, predict what the time will be like and inform the sailors and aviators.
Wind power can also be very useful for turning windmills and small power plants, to start irrigation pumps, to start purification devices in the mines and to sail ships to sails.

Blood circulation in human body - What is the function of blood in the human body?

Blood is the fluid necessary for life. 

It flows through the arteries, capillaries and veins of our body, and consists of a liquid part, called plasma, and blood cells that float in the plasma.
Adult body has about 6.5 liters of blood.
The blood is the most perfect transfer system: it brings food and oxygen to each cell, and takes out the unnecessary products, delivers hormones and other substances, helps the body to fight infection and to adapt the body heat.

Types of Blood Cells

There are three types of blood cells.
They are:  Red blood cells, which give the red color to the blood and carry oxygen,
White blood cells, of which there are several types and whose task is to fight infection, and finally,
the blood plates (Platelets) which help the blood to clot, thus preventing excessive bleeding and blood loss from injured blood vessel.
All blood cells are created in the bone marrow. 
If you look at the open bone, you will see in it reddish-gray cavity spongy substance. Under the microscope we can see a network of blood vessels and connective tissue fibers, between which are numerous, large cells, where blood cells are formed.

What is Blood Plasma?

Of the total volume of blood, approximately 55 percent is plasma, a clear, pale yellow fluid.
After a meal, little balls of fat float in the plasma and it gets dairy look. Therefore, we should not eat before taking blood for examination.
Plasma is like a river that carries substances important for our life, digested nutrients from the walls of the small intestines to the body tissues, and also unnecessary substances from the tissues to the kidneys.
But this is only one part of the work, which is conducted by the plasma.
Blood Plasma
Plasma also conveys antibodies that create resistance to disease, hormones that regulate various functions of the body and part of the carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
Plasma contains several hundred different substances.
In addition to these substances, plasma also contains water - about 91 percent, proteins - 7 percent and mineral salt - 0.9 percent. Salts and proteins are very important for maintaining the necessary balance between the water in the tissues and blood. Mineral salts in plasma also perform other functions of vital importance.
The plasma obtains mineral salts from the food that we enter into the body.

Q&A

What do Red Blood cells do?

Red blood cells give the red color to the blood and carry oxygen

What do White Blood cells do?

There are several types of White Blood cells, and their main task is to fight infection

What do platelets do?

Blood plates (Platelets) help the blood to clot, thus preventing excessive bleeding and blood loss from injured blood vessel.

Can you eat before a blood test?

After a meal, little balls of fat float in the plasma and it gets dairy look. Therefore, we should not eat before taking blood for examination.

What are arteries, veins and capillaries - Human body for kids

Even in the most developed countries in the world, we can’t find a transport system, whose performance is comparable to the efficiency of the blood system in the human body.
Great “roads” and “highways” connect all kinds of big "cities", and food and other necessary supplies are delivered to them.
Such large pathways in the body are the arteries - vessels that carry blood from the heart and veins through which the blood returns to the heart.
However, in the “small towns” and “villages” there is also need for food and supplies. Small roads and streets (the capillaries) reach to the villages and houses in the human body, even to the smallest stations.
What are arteries, veins and capillaries

Circulatory system (Source: Wikipedia)

What are Arteries?

The arteries lie deep in the tissues, except in the area of the wrist, on the upper side of the foot, at the temples and on the sides of the neck.
From any of these places, we can feel the pulse, which is very important for the doctors.
Major arteries have valves at the places from where they come out from the heart.
These vessels are built from many elastic fibers and muscles that can expand and contract.
Arterial blood is bright red and moves through the arteries in waves.

What are Veins?

Veins lie near the surface of the skin and blood in them is darker and moves smoothly: they have valves at certain distances along their whole length.
Far from the heart, into all parts of the body, large blood vessels become tiny, thin as hairs, and there are called capillaries.

What are Capillaries?

Capillary is 50 times thinner than the thinnest of human hairs!
It is so thin that blood cells pass through the capillaries just one after the other, which means that the blood passes through the capillaries very slowly.
What happens when blood flows through a capillary? 
Blood leaves the capillary, but the capillary wall is thin and consists of a single layer of cells. Through the wall of the blood gives up its oxygen to the surrounding tissues, and on return it receives carbon dioxide which is released from the tissues around the capillaries. At the same time, the blood exchanges other substances that provide food to the tissue, and “unnecessary” products enter into the capillary.

Interesting facts about the human heart

  • Adult heart is the size of a fist, and weighs about 300 grams, yet it for 24 hours can produce energy sufficient to lift about 70 tons (or one locomotive) to 33 centimeters above the ground!
  • During the day, the heart tightens and relaxes approximately 100,000 times.
  • The heart of adult men in 24 hours, can pump 16.5 liters of blood.

How can you find out what your blood type is?

All people do not have the same blood. It was only recently discovered, and until then, the blood, in emergency was given by immediate transfusion regardless of the so-called blood type.
This is why half of the patients were worse and many of them died.
To determine the blood groups, are needed the red blood cells of the donor and recipient's blood serum. Serum is one part of blood plasma.

What happens if we mix different blood groups?

If one drop of blood from one type is mixed with blood or serum from other blood type, red blood cells are glued to each other and this is called agglutination. In that case, the red blood cells usually fall apart and cause hemolysis of the blood.
This is why it is important to determine blood groups.

Using agglutination tests, it is showed that the people have four blood types: O, A, B and AB.

Red blood cells of O do not agglutinate with the serum of any group.
In other words, the blood group O can be given to anyone for the purposes of transfusion, regardless of their blood type.
human blood types
That's why people with a group O are known as general blood donors.
In the group AB the serum does not agglutinate the red blood cells of any group, so that people with this blood type can receive blood of any group.

These are called “common” recipients of blood.

We all inherit our blood type, and we can’t change it in the course of our life.
An interesting observation is that across the planet there is a certain scheme of blood groups. From west toward east Europe the number of people with blood group A declines, while the number of people who have group B rises.
In England, 43 percent of people have group A, and 30 percent of the Russia, and Iran, only 15 percent.

Refraction of Light Experiment for Kids - What is Refraction?

When light passes from one substance to another, it may also change direction.
When light rays pass from air to water or from water to air, they bend as they pass through the surface of the water.
This bending is called refraction.

Refraction of Light Experiment: Can you bend a pencil?

Can you bend a pencil without breaking it?
You can make a pencil look as if it has been bent, by putting it in water.

You will need:

  • a glass
  • water
  • a pencil

1. Fill the glass halfway with water Put a pencil in the glass and lean it against the side.
Refraction of Light Experiment: Can you bend a pencil? - Part 1

2. Look at the water from the side The pencil will look bent.
Refraction of Light Experiment: Can you bend a pencil? - Part 2

3. Now take the pencil out of the water. Nothing has happened to it after all!
Refraction of Light Experiment: Can you bend a pencil? - Part 3

Refraction of Light Experiment: Can you bend a pencil? - Part 4

Light rays pass through other substances, as well as air and water.
They travel at different speeds as they pass through these substances.
As rays pass out of one substance and into another, they are refracted.
The amount that light is refracted depends on two things.
The first is the color of the light. 
Red light bends less than other colors, and violet light bends more.
The second is the angle at which the light reaches the surface of the second substance.
This is called the angle of incidence.
The angle at which the light leaves the second substance is called the angle of refraction.
Try your experiment again, looking at the pencil from a number of different angles.
You will see that the pencil seems to bend more at some viewing angles than at others.

Electrical Circuits for Kids - What is Electric Circuit?


  • Do you have a flashlight? 
  • Have you ever looked inside it? 

A flashlight won't light up unless there are batteries inside.
When you switch it on, the batteries make an electric current flow.
This current flows through the bulb and makes it light up.
When you switch on a flashlight, the batteries inside create an electric current by making electrons move. The electric current flows out of one end of the battery, through the bulb, and then back into the battery.
As long as the current can move freely around this pathway, the bulb will light up.
We call this kind of pathway an electric circuit.
While the flashlight is switched on, the current continues to flow around and around the circuit. Turning the switch off makes a break in the circuit. Now the current can't flow, and the light goes out.

Electric Circuit experiment

You will need:

  • two pieces of plastic-coated wire, about 8 inches (20 cm) long, with bare ends
  • a screwdriver 
  • masking tape 
  • a 1.5-volt("D") battery
  • a 1.5 volt battery bulb holder

Which bulb will light up?
An electric current won't flow if it can't make a complete trip around a circuit.
You can test this for yourself.
Set up the simple circuits shown below.
Can you guess which one will make the bulb light up?

1. Tape one end of a piece of wire to the top battery terminal.
Connect the other end of this wire to one side of the bulb holder.
Does the bulb light up?
Electric Circuit experiment for kids Part 1

2. Now connect the other circuits shown here.
Electric Circuit experiment for kids Part 2

Which one is a complete circuit?

Positive and negative terminals

A battery has two connections where the electric current flows in or out.
These connections are called terminals.
Sometimes, as in most flashlight batteries, the terminals are on either end of the battery. Other batteries have both terminals on one end.

  • One terminal is marked + (plus). 
  • The other terminal is marked — (minus). 

The electric current flows out of the terminal marked plus, the positive terminal.
The current flows into the terminal marked minus, the negative terminal.

Crystals for Kids - How do Crystals Form

If we look very closely at some grains of salt, we will see that each grain has the same shape.
Salt grains are shaped like tiny cubes.
Regular shapes like this are called crystals.
Many elements and compounds form crystals. The crystals in salt are easy to see. But other crystals are so small that you need to look through a microscope to see them.
Sugar and ice form crystals.

The atoms in different crystals join together to form different patterns. 
There are seven basic patterns of crystal.

The atoms of garnet form isometric crystals.
The atoms of garnet form isometric crystals.

The atoms of quartz form rhombohedral crystals.
The atoms of quartz form rhombohedral crystals.

The atoms of zircon form tetragonal crystals.
The atoms of zircon form tetragonal crystals.

The atoms of beryl form hexagonal crystals.
The atoms of beryl form hexagonal crystals.

The atoms of topaz form orthorhombic crystals.
The atoms of topaz form orthorhombic crystals.

The atoms of gypsum form monoclinic crystals.
The atoms of gypsum form monoclinic crystals.

The atoms of feldspar form triclinic crystals.
The atoms of feldspar form triclinic crystals.
Many rocks and metals in the earth's surface are found as crystals, too. The crystals of each element or compound are the same. Crystals are made when liquids cool or solutions dry out. Some of the atoms move closer together.
The crystals form in regular shapes because the atoms in the crystals arrange themselves in patterns. Crystals can grow larger over time as they attract more particles towards them. But each different crystal will always keep the same shape.

Atoms can be arranged in a variety of repeating patterns to make different crystals
Atoms can be arranged in a variety of repeating patterns to make different crystals

Aluminum Manufacturing Process - How is Aluminium Produced?

Like many metals, aluminum is a very useful element.
It is found in rock as bauxite, which is an aluminum ore containing oxygen.
The oxygen has to be removed before the aluminum can be used.
The oxygen and the aluminum are joined so firmly that ordinary smelting does not remove the oxygen as it does with other metals.
The best way to separate the aluminum and the oxygen is to pass electricity through them.
This is called electrolysis.
First of all, rock and sandy particles are removed from the aluminum ore.
This leaves a white powder called aluminum oxide.
It is made up of aluminum atoms joined to oxygen atoms.
The powder is dissolved in a tank of chemicals and heated to about 1742 °F (950 °C).
This makes the aluminum oxide melt and become a liquid.
Molten aluminum collects at the bottom of the tank.
Any impurities in the aluminum collect at the top, where the aluminum oxide cools to form a crust.
Rods made of carbon are lowered into the molten aluminum oxide.
An electric current flows through the molten liquid.
The current enters the liquid through one of the rods and leaves through the carbon lining of the tank.
As this happens, the current breaks up the molten aluminum oxide into aluminum and oxygen.
The molten aluminum metal sinks to the bottom of the tank, and the oxygen combines with the carbon, to be released as carbon dioxide gas.
The pure, molten aluminum is drawn off into a crucible and then poured into molds to cool.
The cool aluminum hardens into ingots.

What are the Primary Colors of Light and What is Color Spectrum?

The colors of the rainbow are red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet.
But these are not the only colors in the rainbow.
If you look carefully at a rainbow, you can see that there are colors in between the red and the orange bands that are mixtures of the two.
This is true for all the other main colors as well.
The whole range of these colors is called the spectrum.
The three most important colors of the spectrum are red, green, and blue.
These are the primary colors of light.
All the other colors you can see are mixtures of these three.
If there are equal amounts of red, green, and blue light, you see this mixture as white light.

Colors and wavelength

Try to think of light as something that travels like waves.
White light can be split up into different colors because each color is made up of waves of a particular length. The distance between the top of one wave and the top of the next wave is called the wavelength, and each color has its own wavelength.
The color blue has the shortest wavelength.
Red has the longest wavelength.
When red and green lights are mixed, the result is yellow light.
A mixture of blue and green light forms blue-green light, and blue and red lights form purple light. Combining all three primary colors in light in the proper proportions results in white light.

How much calcium is in human body?

The average human body contains about 1.5 kg of calcium. Major part of the calcium is in the bones as a major part of bone mass.
Bone structure, we could compare with reinforced concrete.
Bone has fibers called collagen fibers, similar to the flexible and iron wires that are placed in reinforced concrete. Calcium makes mass which surrounds the collagen fibers.
The amount of calcium in our bones changes with age. 
During the first year of life the child bones have very little calcium and are very flexible. The child can bend in all sorts of directions without breaking any bones. But when one experiences the age of 80, his bones can contain nearly 80 percent of calcium, and are easily breakable.
To young children we give a lot of milk, among other things, because the milk is very rich in calcium, and young organism is, of course, in need a lot of calcium. One liter of cow's milk contains more than 1.5 g of calcium. Cheese, cream and yogurt also contain large amounts of calcium.
In those parts of the world where the food does not have enough calcium people do not have healthy teeth and often suffer from bone fractures.

What Is Crop Rotation And What Are The Benefits Of Crop Rotation

The land that we need for growing food is very important. We can't afford to spoil it. There are many ways in which farmers could make better use of the land and grow good crops without the help of factory-made chemicals.
If it is farmed with care, the land will go on giving us enough food to eat for thousands of years to come.
One method of careful farming is called crop rotation.
Different kinds of plants take different nutrients from the soil and leave others behind. The same crop planted year after year takes out the same nutrients.
But different crops, like corn and alfalfa, can be planted on the same piece of land.
One year, corn is planted. This will take out certain nutrients from the soil. The following year, alfalfa will be planted. The alfalfa will put back the nutrients absorbed by the corn.

Health Care Careers List - List of Jobs in The Medical Field

Medical specialists are medical professionals who have knowledge, education, and training in a particular field of medicine.
In the following lists are presented some types of medical specialists and their areas of expertise.

List of medical careers

Allergist 

Area of expertise: Treatment of allergies

Anesthesiologist 

Area of expertise: Administration of anesthetics for surgery

Cardiologist 

Area of expertise: Diseases of the heart and circulatory system

Pulmonary Specialist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the lungs and chest

Dermatologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of skin, hair, and nails

Emergency Medicine Specialist

Area of expertise: Emergency treatment of acute illnesses and injuries

Epidemiologist

Area of expertise: Causes, transmission, and control of infectious diseases

Family Physician

Area of expertise: Ongoing health care for persons of all ages

Gastroenterologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the digestive system

General Surgeon

Area of expertise: Surgical treatment of diseases of the abdomen, breast, and other areas

Gynecologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the female reproductive organs

Hematologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the blood, bone marrow, and lymph tissues

Internist

Area of expertise: Nonsurgical treatment of diseases of the internal organs

Nephrologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the kidney

Neurologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the brain and nervous system

Neurosurgeon

Area of expertise: Surgical treatment of diseases of the brain and spinal cord 

Obstetrician

Area of expertise: Health care for pregnancy, labor, and childbirth

Oncologist 

Area of expertise: Treatment of cancer

Ophthalmologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the eye

Orthopedist 

Area of expertise: Diseases of the bones, joints, and muscles

Otolaryngologist 

Area of expertise: Diseases of the ear, nose, throat, and neck

Pathologist

Area of expertise: Study of biopsy specimens and body fluids

Pediatrician

Area of expertise: Health care of infants, children, and adolescents

Physiatrist 

Area of expertise: Rehabilitation of patients following illness or injury

Plastic Surgeon

Area of expertise: Cosmetic surgery and surgical reconstruction

Podiatrist

Area of expertise: Disorders of the foot

Proctologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the anus, rectum, and colon

Psychiatrist

Area of expertise: Treatment of mental disorders

Radiologist

Area of expertise: Study of X ray and ultrasound

Rheumatologist

Area of expertise: Treatment of rheumatic diseases

Urologist

Area of expertise: Diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive organs

Vascular Surgeon

Area of expertise: Surgical treatment of diseases of blood vessels


What is Tallying? - Tallying and Tally Marks

Can you imagine a time when people did not use numbers?
The first people on earth lived by hunting wild animals and collecting wild fruit and nuts.
They had no need to count.
Numbers did not matter to them.
But then, about 11,000 years ago, herdsmen began to keep flocks of sheep and goats.
They had to be able to count so that they would know if any of their animals were missing.
The first calculations were made by counting in ones—'1 and 1 and 1,' and soon.

This method of counting is called tallying. 

One way herdsmen used to tally was to put a stone on a pile for each animal.
Other ways were to tie knots in a length of rope, cut notches in sticks, or make scratches on a rock. Each stone, knot, notch, or scratch represented one sheep or goat.


Space Probes Information - Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 - Voyage of discovery

On August 20, 1977, Voyager 2 was launched into space.
Two weeks later, Voyager 1 set off. 

The two Voyagers were types of unmanned spacecraft called space probes.
Their mission was to travel to the more distant planets of the solar system and send information about them back to earth.
No spacecraft had ever traveled so far into space before.
Voyagers 1 and 2 each carried 11 instruments. 
These included remote-controlled computers, television cameras, ray detectors, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, and a magnetometer.
These instruments recorded and sent back information about our solar system.
Technology has developed quickly since the Voyager probes were launched. That equipment is now out of date. A modern, desktop computer is more powerful than the Voyager computers. Scientists have updated the probes' computer programs and made repairs from earth by remote control.
In 1980, three years after its launch, Voyager 1 reached Titan, Saturn's largest moon.
The probe sent back information to earth. It found chemicals like those on earth. But Titan is too cold for these chemicals to develop into living things as they have done on earth.

The journey of Voyager 2

1. On August 20, 1977, Voyager 2 was launched from earth at a speed of just over 24,800 miles (40,000 kilometers) per hour. The idea was to use the gravity, or pull, of each planet it passed to catapult the space probe faster and faster through space, from one planet to the next.
2. On July 9 1979, Voyager 2 came closest to Jupiter and discovered it has three more moons. The planet’s gravitational pull increased the speed of Voyager 2 to around 30.700 miles (48.000 kilometers) per hour.
3. It was August 25, 1981, and Voyager 2 passed Saturn at a speed of 33,700 miles (54,400 kilometers) per hour. Then we learned that Saturn has nine more moons that it was known to have.
4. At Uranus, on January 24, 1986, Voyager 2 discovered 10 new moons. Its speed was now 36,700 miles (59,200 kilometers) per hour.
5. Mission completed! On August 25, 1989, Voyager 2 passed within 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers) of Neptune's cloud top.
We learned that this planet is a hostile world.
No living thing could survive here.
Twelve years after it left Earth, Voyager 2 reached Neptune. It had traveled nearly 4.4 billion miles (7.1 billion kilometers) and arrived four minutes early!
Voyager 2 carries its own message—a record of voices and other sounds from earth— just in case there is life beyond our solar system.
Voyager 2 is expected to enter interstellar space within a few years of 2016. It is not headed toward any particular star, although in roughly 40,000 years it should pass 1.7 light-years (9.7 trillion miles) from the star Ross 248.
Voyager 2 is expected to keep transmitting weak radio messages until at least 2025, over 48 years after it was launched.

What is a Space Probe? - Information on Space Probes

Until now, human beings have traveled into space only as far as the moon, about 236,000 miles (380,000 kilometers) away.
But robot space crafts are sent very much farther.
These have visited the distant planets.
These robot space crafts are called space probes.

What is a Space Probe?

Space probes carry cameras and many kinds of instruments to study the planets they visit. They send information back to earth by radio.
Probes must be launched from the earth at a very great speed—more than 24,800 miles (40,000 kilometers) an hour.
Then they can escape from the earth's gravity.
Aiming the probe is very difficult, because the planet it must reach is always moving. The probe must be aimed so that it reaches a point in space almost at the same time as its target. It must do this after a journey of many millions of miles, lasting for years.

Voyager space probes

It is an astonishing fact that most probes sent to the planets have reached their targets. In 1989, the American probe Voyager 2 flew past the planet Neptune almost exactly on time, after a 12-year journey. The planet was nearly 3.1 billion miles (5 billion kilometers) away from earth at the time. From this distance, the radio waves from Voyager took over four hours to reach the earth.
A Voyager probe photographed Saturn on its journey into the outer solar system. It used nuclear generators to make electricity.
Solar cells couldn’t be used because sunlight is too weak near Saturn.

Venera space probe

Most probes study a planet as they fly past it. But some actually land on the planet and report back from its surface.
A Russian probe, called Venera, was the first to land on a planet. It parachuted down to Venus in 1970. Since then, several Venera probes have sent back pictures of its surface.
Two American Viking probes landed on Mars in 1976. They sent back pictures and reported on the Martian weather. They also examined the soil for signs of life—but didn't find any!

What is the Function of the Kidneys and How do Kidneys Work?

The kidney filters body fluids within the nephron units and expels wastes via the ureter.


Kidney is one of a pair of organs located at the back of the abdomen, against the strong muscles next to the spine, and behind the intestines and other organs.
The adrenal glands lie on top of the kidneys.
Each kidney weighs about 5 ounces (140g) and is about 4 inches (10cm) long in the average adult.
Its inner structure, which is called the renal pelvis, collects urine as it is formed and passes it out of the kidney to the bladder via the ureter.
The renal pelvis also is connected to the artery and vein that carry blood to and from the kidney.

What is the function of the Kidneys?

The kidneys filter out water and also unwanted substances in the blood.
These substances are produced by the normal working of the body.
They are excreted by the kidneys in the form of urine.
The kidneys also keep the salts and water of the body in correct balance.

How do kidneys work?

The blood passes through each kidney under high pressure.
The blood is filtered by the glomeruli, special structures in the kidney containing clusters of capillaries that collect water, salts, and unwanted substances.
The filtrate passes along a fine tube, the nephron (of which there are approximately one million in each kidney), which reabsorbs any of the water, glucose, and salts that the body still re-quires and allows the rest to pass into the pelvis of the kidney as urine.

Keratitis Definition – What causes Keratitis?

What is Keratitis?

Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea, the transparent membrane that forms the front of the eye. If the condition occurs suddenly, it causes pain, sensitivity to light (photophobia), and watering of the eye. If atitis develops gradually, only minor discomfort may result.
Opaque patches in the cornea can cause the patient vision to blur.

What causes keratitis?

Keratitis is often a symptom of more general disorder. Virus infections, such as trachoma (chronic conjunctivitis) or herpes simplex may infect the cornea.
Bacteria infection may follow any eye wound.
Keratitis is also a consequence of congenital syphilis or, rarely, tuberculosis.
It most often occurs in children between the ages of 5 and 15.
A deficiency of vitamin A causes dryness of the cornea, which makes it more susceptible to infection.

Keratitis Treatment

Further damage to the cornea can be prevented with eye drops, containing the drug atropine, to dilate the pupil.
Corticosteroid drugs reduce the inflammation.
It is essential for the eyes to be examined by an ophthalmologist.

Kaposi’s Sarcoma Definition - What is Kaposi’s Sarcoma?

Kaposi’s Sarcoma is a malignant tumor, which usually begins as soft, purplish, raised lesions on the feet and spreads through the lymphatic system.
Before 1980, this tumor was seen only in elderly Italian or Jewish men or in younger people from equatorial Africa.
It was a relatively rare disease.
Now, however, a specific, more severe form of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and several other countries.
The treatment for the milder form of KS is electron beam radiotherapy, while deeper lesions are treated using X-ray therapy.
The more severe type of KS is sometimes treated with antimicrobial drugs and other forms of treatment to help re-store the immune system within the cells.