What is Tallying? - Tallying and Tally Marks

Can you imagine a time when people did not use numbers?
The first people on earth lived by hunting wild animals and collecting wild fruit and nuts.
They had no need to count.
Numbers did not matter to them.
But then, about 11,000 years ago, herdsmen began to keep flocks of sheep and goats.
They had to be able to count so that they would know if any of their animals were missing.
The first calculations were made by counting in ones—'1 and 1 and 1,' and soon.

This method of counting is called tallying. 

One way herdsmen used to tally was to put a stone on a pile for each animal.
Other ways were to tie knots in a length of rope, cut notches in sticks, or make scratches on a rock. Each stone, knot, notch, or scratch represented one sheep or goat.


Space Probes Information - Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 - Voyage of discovery

On August 20, 1977, Voyager 2 was launched into space.
Two weeks later, Voyager 1 set off. 

The two Voyagers were types of unmanned spacecraft called space probes.
Their mission was to travel to the more distant planets of the solar system and send information about them back to earth.
No spacecraft had ever traveled so far into space before.
Voyagers 1 and 2 each carried 11 instruments. 
These included remote-controlled computers, television cameras, ray detectors, infrared and ultraviolet sensors, and a magnetometer.
These instruments recorded and sent back information about our solar system.
Technology has developed quickly since the Voyager probes were launched. That equipment is now out of date. A modern, desktop computer is more powerful than the Voyager computers. Scientists have updated the probes' computer programs and made repairs from earth by remote control.
In 1980, three years after its launch, Voyager 1 reached Titan, Saturn's largest moon.
The probe sent back information to earth. It found chemicals like those on earth. But Titan is too cold for these chemicals to develop into living things as they have done on earth.

The journey of Voyager 2

1. On August 20, 1977, Voyager 2 was launched from earth at a speed of just over 24,800 miles (40,000 kilometers) per hour. The idea was to use the gravity, or pull, of each planet it passed to catapult the space probe faster and faster through space, from one planet to the next.
2. On July 9 1979, Voyager 2 came closest to Jupiter and discovered it has three more moons. The planet’s gravitational pull increased the speed of Voyager 2 to around 30.700 miles (48.000 kilometers) per hour.
3. It was August 25, 1981, and Voyager 2 passed Saturn at a speed of 33,700 miles (54,400 kilometers) per hour. Then we learned that Saturn has nine more moons that it was known to have.
4. At Uranus, on January 24, 1986, Voyager 2 discovered 10 new moons. Its speed was now 36,700 miles (59,200 kilometers) per hour.
5. Mission completed! On August 25, 1989, Voyager 2 passed within 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers) of Neptune's cloud top.
We learned that this planet is a hostile world.
No living thing could survive here.
Twelve years after it left Earth, Voyager 2 reached Neptune. It had traveled nearly 4.4 billion miles (7.1 billion kilometers) and arrived four minutes early!
Voyager 2 carries its own message—a record of voices and other sounds from earth— just in case there is life beyond our solar system.
Voyager 2 is expected to enter interstellar space within a few years of 2016. It is not headed toward any particular star, although in roughly 40,000 years it should pass 1.7 light-years (9.7 trillion miles) from the star Ross 248.
Voyager 2 is expected to keep transmitting weak radio messages until at least 2025, over 48 years after it was launched.

What is a Space Probe? - Information on Space Probes

Until now, human beings have traveled into space only as far as the moon, about 236,000 miles (380,000 kilometers) away.
But robot space crafts are sent very much farther.
These have visited the distant planets.
These robot space crafts are called space probes.

What is a Space Probe?

Space probes carry cameras and many kinds of instruments to study the planets they visit. They send information back to earth by radio.
Probes must be launched from the earth at a very great speed—more than 24,800 miles (40,000 kilometers) an hour.
Then they can escape from the earth's gravity.
Aiming the probe is very difficult, because the planet it must reach is always moving. The probe must be aimed so that it reaches a point in space almost at the same time as its target. It must do this after a journey of many millions of miles, lasting for years.

Voyager space probes

It is an astonishing fact that most probes sent to the planets have reached their targets. In 1989, the American probe Voyager 2 flew past the planet Neptune almost exactly on time, after a 12-year journey. The planet was nearly 3.1 billion miles (5 billion kilometers) away from earth at the time. From this distance, the radio waves from Voyager took over four hours to reach the earth.
A Voyager probe photographed Saturn on its journey into the outer solar system. It used nuclear generators to make electricity.
Solar cells couldn’t be used because sunlight is too weak near Saturn.

Venera space probe

Most probes study a planet as they fly past it. But some actually land on the planet and report back from its surface.
A Russian probe, called Venera, was the first to land on a planet. It parachuted down to Venus in 1970. Since then, several Venera probes have sent back pictures of its surface.
Two American Viking probes landed on Mars in 1976. They sent back pictures and reported on the Martian weather. They also examined the soil for signs of life—but didn't find any!

What is the Function of the Kidneys and How do Kidneys Work?

The kidney filters body fluids within the nephron units and expels wastes via the ureter.


Kidney is one of a pair of organs located at the back of the abdomen, against the strong muscles next to the spine, and behind the intestines and other organs.
The adrenal glands lie on top of the kidneys.
Each kidney weighs about 5 ounces (140g) and is about 4 inches (10cm) long in the average adult.
Its inner structure, which is called the renal pelvis, collects urine as it is formed and passes it out of the kidney to the bladder via the ureter.
The renal pelvis also is connected to the artery and vein that carry blood to and from the kidney.

What is the function of the Kidneys?

The kidneys filter out water and also unwanted substances in the blood.
These substances are produced by the normal working of the body.
They are excreted by the kidneys in the form of urine.
The kidneys also keep the salts and water of the body in correct balance.

How do kidneys work?

The blood passes through each kidney under high pressure.
The blood is filtered by the glomeruli, special structures in the kidney containing clusters of capillaries that collect water, salts, and unwanted substances.
The filtrate passes along a fine tube, the nephron (of which there are approximately one million in each kidney), which reabsorbs any of the water, glucose, and salts that the body still re-quires and allows the rest to pass into the pelvis of the kidney as urine.

Keratitis Definition – What causes Keratitis?

What is Keratitis?

Keratitis is an inflammation of the cornea, the transparent membrane that forms the front of the eye. If the condition occurs suddenly, it causes pain, sensitivity to light (photophobia), and watering of the eye. If atitis develops gradually, only minor discomfort may result.
Opaque patches in the cornea can cause the patient vision to blur.

What causes keratitis?

Keratitis is often a symptom of more general disorder. Virus infections, such as trachoma (chronic conjunctivitis) or herpes simplex may infect the cornea.
Bacteria infection may follow any eye wound.
Keratitis is also a consequence of congenital syphilis or, rarely, tuberculosis.
It most often occurs in children between the ages of 5 and 15.
A deficiency of vitamin A causes dryness of the cornea, which makes it more susceptible to infection.

Keratitis Treatment

Further damage to the cornea can be prevented with eye drops, containing the drug atropine, to dilate the pupil.
Corticosteroid drugs reduce the inflammation.
It is essential for the eyes to be examined by an ophthalmologist.

Kaposi’s Sarcoma Definition - What is Kaposi’s Sarcoma?

Kaposi’s Sarcoma is a malignant tumor, which usually begins as soft, purplish, raised lesions on the feet and spreads through the lymphatic system.
Before 1980, this tumor was seen only in elderly Italian or Jewish men or in younger people from equatorial Africa.
It was a relatively rare disease.
Now, however, a specific, more severe form of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), has reached epidemic proportions in the United States and several other countries.
The treatment for the milder form of KS is electron beam radiotherapy, while deeper lesions are treated using X-ray therapy.
The more severe type of KS is sometimes treated with antimicrobial drugs and other forms of treatment to help re-store the immune system within the cells.

Albinism Definition - What is Albinism and What Causes Albinism?

Albinism is the lack of brown pigment - melanin, and a person with such property is called albino. The appearance of albinism can also be found in Africa.
Albinism may be partly inherited. Many people are not albinos, but passed the traits of albinism to their children.

What causes albinism?

The color of the skin, hair, eyes, etc.. in humans is the result of the interaction of various substances in the body.
One are the substances that form the basis of future color, and other are the enzymes that act on that basis.
If someone doesn’t has one of these two substances, or their relationship is disturbed, the result is albinism.
The name derives from the Latin word albus, meaning white.

Albinism symptoms

Albinos have pink eyes, because the red blood in the retina of the eye.
Albinos eyes are very sensitive to light. That's why they keep flashing and keep partially lowered eyelids.
Hair and body hair of Albinos are white.
Even the tissues in the body are white, such as brain and spinal cord.

Albinism exists not only in humans but also in animals of all species. 
It was also found in birds.
Albinos are probably white mice, rats and rabbits, which we all know. There are people who have seen albinos squirrel and even a giraffe albino!

What Are Human Bones Made of?

Strength of normal, healthy human bones is amazing. The bones must be strong, because they make the skeleton which holds the whole body.
Bones vary in shape and size depending on the type of animal to which they belong. Fish and small birds have small bones.
The elephant has bones that are difficult few hundred pounds!

Bone composition

All the bones are of similar composition.
Bone is hard, grey-white color and two-thirds of bone tissue are inorganic or mineral substances, especially lime phosphate.
This gives the bone its hardness, but at the same time makes them brittle.
The remaining third of the bone makes organic matter. It gives bone strength and resistance to fracture. The center of the bone is spongy and filled with bone marrow.
Some of bone marrow fat is stored in the second part and the core creates blood cells. In the bones there is a small amount of water, which, with the aging of the body, gradually disappears.
With less water in the bones, greater is the amount of minerals, causing bones to become brittle and break after slowly coming together.

Interesting Facts About Bones

  • Humans have about 300 bones when born. Some of these, fuse together creating a single bone. When maturity is reached, humans have 206 bones in the body.
  • The teeth are not counted as bones.
  • The greatest bone in the body, “the femur”, is around 1/4 of the persons height. 
  • The smallest bone in the body is the stapes (stirrup) located in the middle ear, with size around 1/10 of an inch (2.8 millimetres).
  • The only bone which is full-grown at birth is the stapes bone, and is situated in the ear.
  • Hand, fingers and wrist make the area of the body with most bones - 54.
  • The bones of an adult person make approximately 14 % of the total body weight.
  • The bones are made of approximately 75 % of water
  • Human bones start to grow from birth, until mid 20's. 
  • Broken bones re-grow and repair themselves. 
  • The human skeletal system has six major functions: 1. production of blood cells, 2. support, 3. movement, 4. protection, 5. storage of ions and 6. endocrine regulation.
  • The Bone marrow makes up 4% of a human body mass.

Jet Lag Definition - What is Jet Lag and How to Avoid Jet Lag?

Jet lag is the disorientation in the normal biological circadian rhythm, which is experienced by a person traveling from one time zone to another with more than four hours difference.
The greater the time difference, the greater the degree of disorientation.

Jet lag symptoms

During the time the traveler needs for his or her body to adjust to new eating and sleeping patterns, he or she may feel disoriented, tired, and “out of sync” with the new schedule, that is, sleepy during the day, awake at night, and hungry at inconvenient hours.
The body temperature may also no longer be synchronized with day and night requirements.

How to avoid jet lag

The symptoms of jet lag are often made worse by overeating and by a high consumption of alcohol during the flight, which is known to cause dehydration.
It is, therefore, advisable to drink plenty of nonalcoholic fluids during a long flight.
Some people believe that jet lag may be completely avoided by abstaining totally from alcohol and eating as lightly as possible during the flight, preferably on the schedule of mealtimes in the destination time zone.
Additionally, a diet developed by some researches is thought by some travelers to help adjust the circadian rhythms prior to flying by altering the intake of food and caffeine for several days before travel. There is no medical evidence to support this; people are advised to check with their physician before following the diet, since it could have detrimental effects on certain health conditions, such as diabetes.

Jet Lag Treatment

The body may take a long time to adjust to a new circadian rhythm, possibly as long as 10 days.
If the stay in the new time zone is to be brief, it is often advisable not to try to adapt, but rather to retain the familiar rhythm, even at the expense of unusual hours.
On a business trip this generally means that at least some working hours fall within commercial times.
A longer stay in the new time zone requires adaptation.
A mild sedative, prescribed by a physician, may help to ensure proper sleep for a few nights after arrival. The body will adjust its eating habits to conform with the new sleeping pattern.
Jaundice Definition - What is Jaundice?

Jaundice Definition - What is Jaundice?

Jaundice (Icterus) is a condition characterized by a yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes.
Jaundice is a symptom, not a disease in itself.
The yellow coloration is caused by an excess in the body of the bile pigment bilirubin.
Normally, bilirubin is formed by the breakdown of hemoglobin during the destruction of worn-out red blood cells. It is then excreted by the liver into the bile via the bile ducts.

What causes high bilirubin in the body?

High bilirubin can be caused by:
  • Overproduction of bilirubin;
  • Failure of the liver to metabolize bilirubin or to excrete it;
  • Blockage of the bile ducts.
Overproduction of bilirubin may be caused by the destruction of an excessive number of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia).
The liver then can’t excrete bilirubin fast enough.
This occurs in malaria, thalassemia, and hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Jaundice may also result from various diseases that can affect the liver, such as hepatitis, cirrhosis or cancer.
If the bile ducts become blocked, bile can’t be excreted and jaundice occurs.
The ducts may be blocked by inflammation and in fection (cholangitis); a gallstone (cholelithiasis); or cancer of the pancreas or the common bile duct.
Occasionally a drug such as chlorpromazine may inhibit bilirubin excretion by the liver.

Jaundice in Babies

Mild jaundice occurs as a common and normal condition in newborn babies because at birth there is both a deficiency in the enzyme that helps to excrete bilirubin and also an increased breakdown of red blood cells.
In babies, the condition generally disappears within a few days as the enzyme is formed.
Rarely, this enzyme deficiency can also cause jaundice in adults.

Symptoms of Jaundice

Symptoms of Jaundice depend on the specific cause of the jaundice.
In many forms of the condition, bilirubin is excreted in the urine, which becomes dark brown in color.
If the excretion of bile is obstructed, stools are almost white and the digestion of fat is impaired.
If the condition has been present for some time, intense localized itching may occur due to blockage of the bile ducts.

How are the causes of jaundice diagnosed?

Diagnosis requires special blood tests, in which a physician determines whether the liver is diseased; whether the bilirubin is being correctly metabolized by the liver cells; and whether there is any abnormal breakdown of the red blood cells.
The urine is examined for bilirubin, and the feces for pale coloration (which would indicate an obstruction to bile excretion).
It Is sometimes necessary to perform a liver biopsy to examine Cells under a microscope or to examine the liver, gallbladder, and bile ducts with ultrasound to locate gallstones.

Iodine Uses in Medicine - What is Iodine?

Iodine is a nonmetallic element, which is essential in the human diet for the correct functioning of the thyroid gland.
Lack of iodine in the diet leads to the formation of a goiter and hypothyroidism.

Iodine uses in medicine

Iodine salts may sometimes be given in the early treatment of hyperthyroidism, excessive activity of the thyroid gland.
Iodine dissolved in an alcoholic solution or combined with povidone (povidone-iodine) is used as an antiseptic skin preparation before surgical operations or to clean wounds.
Iodine preparations are also used as diagnostic aids in special X rays, such as cholecystogram (of the gall bladder), intravenous pyelogram (of the kidney), and arteriogram (of an artery).
Radioactive iodine is used in the diagnosis of thyroid gland disease, as well as in investigations of liver, lung, and kidney disorders.
The preparation loses half its radioactivity within eight days. In larger doses, it may also be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and cancer of the thyroid gland.

Intussusception Definition – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment – What is Intussusception?

Intussusception is a form of intestinal obstruction in which one section of the intestine telescopes into the next section, akin to the finger of a glove being turned inside-out.
The telescoped section of the intestine is drawn in further by the action of the intestinal muscles.
Most intussusceptions occur in children.
In most cases, the cause for intussusception is not known. It has been suggested that intussusception occurs most often in children who have had a recent infection that causes a swelling of lymphoid tissue in the intestinal wall. The body treats the swelling as part of the intestinal contents and pulls it along by the action of the intestinal muscles.
Occasionally, a polyp, tumor, or Meckel’s diverticulum may cause intussusception in adults.

Symptoms of intussusception

In children, intussusception usually occurs suddenly, with severe pain, vomiting, and pallor.
The affected child may draw up the knees and scream with the pain.
As the attacks become more severe; the straining to expel feces may cause blood and mucus to be passed from the rectum.
Between attacks, the child may be calm and relaxed and may appear to have recovered.

Intussusception treatment

Immediate hospitalization is vital.
The patient is first given a barium enema to confirm the diagnosis.
The pressure of the enema sometimes restores the affected parts of the intestine to their normal positions.
If this does not happen, a surgical operation is necessary.

Insulin Hormone - What Does Insulin Do?

Insulin is a hormone which is produced in the pancreas, by the cells called the islets of Langerhans.

What does insulin do?

Insulin controls the use of glucose, fats, and lipids by the body.
An excess of insulin, sometimes caused by a pancreatic tumor, causes a low level of sugar in the blood (hypoglycemia); and a lack of insulin produces an abnormally high level of sugar in the blood (hyperglycemia), which is a symptom of diabetes mellitus.
Since severe deficiency of insulin can be life-threatening, the natural insulin level in diabetic patients is augmented by insulin injections.

Insulin Production

Insulin is obtained from the pancreases of cattle or it is produced synthetically, using recombinant DNA which does not stimulate the formation of antibodies against insulin, or sensitization, as the animal insulin may do.
Insulin is prepared in various ways to make it act quickly (soluble insulin), or slowly, in combination with zinc and other substances, so that only one or two injections a day are necessary.
The strength of insulin is expressed in units of activity; the dosage is measured in syringes marked off in units.

Incontinence Definition, Causes, Treatment - What is Incontinence?

Incontinence or the loss of bladder or bowels control is a common and often embarrassing problem.
Until about the age of two, people can’t achieve voluntary control of the bladder during the daytime, and at night may not occur until some years later.
In adults the severity of urinary incontinence ranges from occasionally leaking urine when the person coughs or sneezes, to having an urge to urinate that's so sudden and strong, that persons can’t reach the toilet in time.

What Causes Incontinence of the Bladder?

Any neurological disorder that interferes with normal sensations from the bladder can prevent control of the sphincter muscle that normally closes it.
Such disorders include:
  • Spina bifida;
  • Damage to the spinal cord;
  • Multiple sclerosis;
  • Nerve degeneration that occurs with conditions like diabetes mellitus, stroke, or Alzheimer’s disease. Incontinence is also seen following certain attacks of epilepsy.
Incontinence may also result from partial obstruction caused by enlargement of the prostate gland (prostatomegaly) and from disorders of the muscle that controls the outflow of urine; such a muscle disorder may follow surgery or cancer.
Some women develop stress incontinence because of prolapse of the uterus, which presses on the bladder and changes its structure so that urine escapes when the woman coughs or laughs.
Incontinence may also result from an injury to the spinal cord that prevents impulses between the brain and the bladder.

What Causes Incontinence of the Bowels?

In young children, lack of bowel control may simply be resistance to toilet training.
But in older children it may occur because of stress or a psychological disorder.
Fecal incontinence is common in the senile, as is constipation.
Failure to control the bowels may also be associated with neurological disorders, such as a stroke, multiple sclerosis, or the polyneuritis associated with diabetes mellitus.
The condition may follow damage to the sphincter muscle that closes the anus following childbirth or an operation for anal fistula or fissure.
Another factor can be cancer of the rectum or simply severe diarrhea.

Treatment for incontinence

The treatment of any form of incontinence must be directed toward the cause.
Special bags may be used for urinary incontinence, but fecal incontinence is more difficult to control. Special waterproof undergarments with absorbent pads may be worn to prevent leakage of stool or urine.
A new treatment involves electrical stimulation of the muscles that close the exits from the bladder and the rectum.

Erectile Dysfunction Definition - What Causes Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile dysfunction or Impotence is a man’s inability to produce or maintain a penile erection.
The condition interferes with sexual intercourse.
The Erectile dysfunction may be short-lived or may last for a long time.
Brief bouts of Erectile dysfunction may follow depression and illnesses, such as influenza, or after taking drugs or alcohol.
In these cases the man can expect a swift return to former potency.

What Causes Erectile Dysfunction?

Erectile Dysfunction often has a    psychological origin, such as:
  • depression,
  • marital conflict, or
  • performance anxiety.
There may be, however, a physical cause, such as:
  • stroke,
  • chronic diabetes mellitus, or
  • alcoholism.
Erectile Dysfunction may also occur as an aftereffect of certain surgical procedures or a side effect of certain medications.
Erectile Dysfunction should be evaluated for both physical and psychological causes; it may result from a combination of factors.

Erectile Dysfunction Treatment

When the Erectile Dysfunction has a psychological basis, a physician may arrange for the problem to be discussed with a sex therapist or marriage counselor. The patient’s sexual partner should be involved in such discussions and any consequent treatment because the partner’s reassurance and encouragement are essential.
If the Erectile Dysfunction is a result of a physical disorder, the underlying cause must be treated first. If the physical problem can’t be corrected, a surgical penile implant procedure can be done for many men to give them the mechanical ability to attain an erection.

Ileitis Definition - What is Ileitis?

Ileitis is an inflammation of the third portion of the small intestine (Ileum), often also involving the colon.
Ileitis affects males and females equally, usually under the age of 40.

Ileitis causes

Ileitis may result from infection, previous bowel surgery, or, most commonly, an immunologic factor.

Ileitis symptoms

The condition usually causes acute abdominal pain, similar to appendicitis. Other symptoms of Ileitis include diarrhea (sometimes alternating with constipation), fever, anorexia, weight loss, and a distention of the abdomen.

Ileitis treatment

No specific treatment has been discovered for Ileitis. Sometimes a complete recovery will follow an initial isolated attack of acute ileitis. More commonly, the disease is chronic, in which case various drugs can help reduce the symptoms.
A bypass operation or the removal of the affected bowel can also diminish the symptoms, though surgery will not eliminate the condition.

Hysteria Definition - What is Hysteria?

Hysteria refers to a condition in which the person exhibits any one of a number of often dramatic symptoms.

Hysteria symptoms

Hysteria symptoms include:
  • Paralysis,
  • Blindness,
  • Seizures,
  • Abdominal pain,
  • Alterations in consciousness, such as amnesia or fugue.

None of these symptoms have any organic basis.
Such individuals may go from doctor to doctor in an attempt to find a solution and often undergo many diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, including surgery, and take multiple medications.

However, the basis of hysteric symptoms is typically believed to be repressed psychological conflict.
A thorough physical and psychological evaluation is needed.

Hysteria treatment

Hysteria is usually treated with some type of psychotherapy designed to help the patient understand his or her unconscious conflicts.
Treatment with drugs and hypnosis may also supplement the psychotherapy.
The psychiatric term, hysteria, is very different from the emotional outburst most people associate with the word “hysteria.”

Hypothyroidism Definition - What is Hypothyroidism?

Hypothyroidism is a medical condition that results from an inadequate supply of hormones from the thyroid gland in the neck.
If hypothyroidism develops before birth, the infant is retarded both mentally and physically. See also cretinism.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism

The symptoms of hypothyroidism include: Tiredness, Weight gain, Sensitivity to cold.
The patient’s skin becomes dry and puffy, especially on the face, and the hair of the scalp and the eyebrows becomes dry and brittle.
The voice may become hoarse, and anemia may develop.
Sometimes, there is numbness and tingling in the hands and feet.
Constipation is common.
In women there are menstrual disorders, such as heavy bleeding and irregular periods.
These symptoms develop gradually.
Over a period of time, if the condition is untreated, the individual's personality can also change.
There may be a slowing down of the thought processes, sometimes mild confusion and dementia, and occasionally symptoms that suggest paranoia. This severe form of hypothyroidism is called myx-edema.

Treatment for hypothyroidism

A physician usually begins treatment of hypothyroidism with a small dose of one of the thyroid hormones and then gradually increases the dose.
The increase generally takes several weeks, because a sudden change may cause cardiac problems, especially in an elderly patient.
Patients who receive appropriate treatment for hypothyroidism recover completely and can expect to lead a normal life. They will, however, require treatment for the rest of their lives, with occasional blood tests to ensure that the correct amounts of hormones are being given.

Hirschsprung’s Disease Definition - What is Hirschsprung's Disease?

Hirschsprung’s disease (Megacolon), is a congenital defect of the large intestine in which there is an absence of the nerve fibers within certain segments of the intestinal muscles.
As a result, the muscles in the affected area do not work, and there is no peristalsis (the rhythmic movement by which the intestine moves its contents along) in the affected section.

This acts as an obstruction.

Hirschsprung disease symptoms

Hirschsprung's disease symptoms usually include severe, continuous constipation and the abdomen becomes increasingly distended (swollen) as the intestine fills with feces. The affected child may vomit, and growth may be retarded.

Hirschsprung disease treatment

Most cases require a surgical operation in which the abnormal section of the intestine is removed, and the two normal ends joined together.

Hay Fever Definition - What is Hay Fever and What Causes Hay Fever?

Hay fever (allergic rhinitis) is an allergic condition characterized by irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat.

Hay fever is most common in people with a family history of similar complaints or a personal history of eczema, hives (urticaria) and/or asthma.

What causes hay fever?

Some people's bodies produce an excessive amount of histamine as a result of inhalation of dust or pollen from trees, grass, flowers, weeds, mushroom spores or animal hair.

Histamine is the chemical that produces the symptoms of hay fever.

Symptoms of hay fever

Symptoms of hay fever include:
  • Runny, itchy, stuffy nose;
  • Sneezing; and
  • Itchy and watery eyes.
Patients may also complain of ear fullness, sinus congestion, and a cough due to postnasal drip.

Hay fever treatment

The ideal treatment for Hay fever is avoidance of the allergen. However, since this is not always possible, a variety of antihistamines, decongestants, and intranasal steroids may be prescribed.
Topical decongestants are effective, but should not be used for longer than three days to avoid rebound swelling and rhinitis.
Immunologic therapy, or hyposensitization, is useful in individuals who do not respond to the above treatments. They are given small, gradually increasing inoculations of extracts of the allergen to which they are sensitive. These injections are given weekly, usually for one year with maintenance therapy injections every 2 to 4 weeks for 3 to 5 years.
About 80 percent of patients benefit from hyposensitization.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Definition – Symptoms, Treatment

Carbon monoxide is the most poisonous gas likely to be present in domestic surroundings. For example, when an automobile engine has been left running in an enclosed space, such as a garage, carbon monoxide can accumulate to toxic levels.

Effects of carbon monoxide poisoning

Carbon monoxide, and mixtures that contain it, prevent the blood from carrying oxygen to tissues. Carbon monoxide is easily absorbed through the lungs and inhaling even relatively small amounts, can lead to hypoxic injury, neurological damage, and even death.
Carbon monoxide exposure may lead to a significantly shorter life span due to heart damage.

Symptoms of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Different people and different populations have different tolerance levels of Carbon Monoxide, but the symptoms are similar:
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Vomiting
  • Nausea
  • Chest pain
  • Confusion
  • Tachycardia
High levels of Carbon Monoxide inhalation will cause loss of consciousness even after 2–3 breaths, and death in less than three minutes.

Unless suspected, poisoning with Carbon Monoxide is very difficult to detect, because the symptoms mimic other illnesses. People who are sleeping or intoxicated can die from Carbon Monoxide poisoning before ever experiencing symptoms.

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Treatment

Initial treatment for persons with carbon monoxide poisoning is to immediately remove them from the exposure and Call 911.
If the person is unconscious, check for injuries before moving, then CPR is required on site.
If the person is not breathing normally:
Perform CPR for one minute before calling 911 if you are alone. Otherwise, have someone else call and begin CPR.
Please have in mind that the CPR procedure is different for children.
Continue CPR until the person begins breathing or emergency help arrives.


Once at the hospital, treatment depends on the severity of the carbon monoxide exposure.

What are the Symptoms of Gas Poisoning?

When solids and liquids, such as mineral acids, ammonia, cyanides, and mercury, are heated, many poisonous gases are released.
Among these poisonous gases, are mineral acids, ammonia, cyanides and mercury.
Other types of poisonous gases are specially manufactured for war purposes.

Poisonous gases affect the body in various ways, and many are potentially fatal.

What are the Symptoms of Gas Poisoning?

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Carbon monoxide, and mixtures that contain it, prevent the blood from carrying oxygen to tissues;

Hydrogen Sulfide Poisoning

Hydrogen sulfide causes respiratory paralysis;

Carbon Tetrachloride Poisoning

Carbon tetrachloride damages the liver and kidneys;

Carbon Disulfide Poisoning

Carbon disulfide produces nerve damage and ultimately causes paralysis and psychoses;

Tear Gases Poisoning

Tear gases such as xylyl bromide, severely irritate the eyes, nose, and throat;

Nerve Gases Poisoning

Various nerve gases prevent the proper functioning of nerve impulses;

Chlorine and Phosgene Poisoning

lung irritant gases, such as chlorine and phosgene, attack the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs;

Vesicant gases Poisoning

Vesicant gases, such as mustard gas and lewisite gas (containing arsenic), cause blisters and ulcers on the skin;

Nauseant gases Poisoning

Nauseant gases, such as chloropicrin, induce vomiting;

Nose irritant gases Poisoning

Nose irritant gases, such as diphenylchlorarsine, cause pain, sneezing, depression, and sometimes vomiting.

How do people come in contact with poisonous gases?

  • Carbon monoxide is the most poisonous gas likely to be present in domestic surroundings. For example, when an automobile engine has been left running in an enclosed space, such as a garage, carbon monoxide can accumulate to toxic levels.
  • Carbon tetrachloride is used in dry cleaning.
  • Hydrogen sulfide is a poisonous gas produced in some chemical processes.
  • Tear gases are used by police and military personnel.
  • Carbon disulfide is used in the rubber industry and in making rayon.

Gas Gangrene Definition - What is Gas Gangrene?

Gas gangrene is a type of moist gangrene that is usually a complication of a crushing injury.

What causes Gas Gangrene?

The infection is caused by the bacterium Clostridium welchii, which thrives without oxygen and releases a foul-smelling gas as well as a poisonous toxin.
The bacteria breed in the damaged tissue and spread rapidly to healthy tissue.

Gas Gangrene Symptoms

Symptoms of Gas Gangrene include a high fever, putrid-smelling pus, and the formation of gas bubbles under skin.
In case of Gas Gangrene, urgent hospitalization is necessary. Death occurs within about two days if the condition is not treated.

Gamma Globulin Definition - What is Gamma Globulin?

Gamma globulin is a plasma protein, a component of blood serum that contains antibodies.
Gamma globulin can be extracted from the blood of a person who is immune to a certain infection and injected into another person who has been exposed to the disease (hyperimmune globulin).
These extracts can provide temporary immunity to infectious hepatitis, rubeola (measles), poliomyelitis, tetanus, yellow fever, or smallpox.
Gamma globulin injections do not seem to be of much benefit against mumps or rubella (German measles).
There is a serious risk of infection if a person has a low level of gamma globulin.
For example, in a rare, inherited disorder called agammaglobulinemia, there is almost no gamma globulin in the blood. Infections of all kinds occur more often and are more serious.
Decreased gamma globulin levels sometimes result from the treatment of leukemia or cancer by chemotherapy. The only treatment in such circumstances is regular doses of gamma globulin.

Immune globulin Rh0 (D)

Special preparation of gamma globulin, Rh0 (D) immune globulin, is given to a mother who has Rh- (Rh negative) blood after she has given birth.

Furosemide Definition - What is Furosemide?

Furosemide is powerful diuretic available in tablet and injection form. Furosemide (trade name – Lasix), is used to treat edema, a retention of fluid that accompanies disorders such as heart failure, kidney disease, and cirrhosis of the liver.
Furosemide may also be prescribed in the treatment of high blood pressure and sometimes is used in the treatment of overdoses of certain drugs, such as barbiturates, because it increases the flow of urine.

Furosemide Side Effects

Furosemide may cause nausea and diarrhea, and it may, in rare cases, result in deafness.
The use of furosemide may also cause a de crease in the levels of sodium, calcium, and potassium in the blood. For this reason, potassium supplements should be prescribed when furosemide is taken for a long period of time.

Foot Drop Definition - What Causes Foot Drop?

Foot drop is a condition in which the toes drag and the foot hangs, caused by weakness or paralysis of the muscles on the side of the shinbone.

What Causes Foot Drop

It may occur as a result of damage or inflammation of the nerves supplying the muscles. A muscle disorder, such as myasthenia gravis or one of the muscular dystrophies, can also cause foot drop.

Foot drop treatment

The treatment of foot drop depends on the underlying cause.
If foot drop remains after the treatment, the patient may wear a special splint or a spring on the shoe to prevent stumbling. Occasionally, a physician recommends an operation called an arthrodesis, which stops ankle movement, so that the ankle is fixed with the foot at right angles to the leg.
Alternatively, the base of a tendon may be transplanted from one side of the foot to the other, to strengthen the movement of the foot.

What are Endorphins and How to Increase Endorphin Levels?

Endorphin is a chemical substance made of proteins and produced in the pituitary gland of the brain. It acts on the central and the peripheral nervous systems in suppressing pain.
Enkephalin is a type of endorphin and also a natural pain killer, working to inhibit the transmission of pain in the pathway for pain perception. This lessens the emotional and the physical impact of pain.
Research is revealing how these two natural opiates might also serve other roles.
Enkephalin might be involved in the development of psycho-pathological behavior in some people. Endorphin might also exert profound effects on moods, higher production being associated with a person's sense of well-being.
Increased levels of these chemical substances might also prevent an immune system from being weakened by such psychological states as depression or bereavement.
People prone to depression, alcoholism, or drug addiction are often deficient in endorphin levels.

How to increase endorphin levels?

Regular aerobic exercise is believed to elevate endorphin levels.This is the so-called “runner’s high”.
Meditation, prayer and relaxation response training also elevate endorphin levels.

Signs and Symptoms of Endometriosis - What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a condition in which fragments of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) spread to other tissues, such as the wall of the uterus, the ovaries, the peritoneum, or the bowel. The causes of the disease are unknown, but its incidence is higher in white women and in women who defer pregnancy. The fragments are benign, but may cause complications if they lodge in a critical location, leading to an organ dysfunction.

Symptoms of Endometriosis

In most of the cases there are no definite symptoms, and the condition is found only during a surgical operation for some other disorder.
When present, symptoms of Endometriosis include heavy periods, often more frequent than usual, accompanied by pain (dysmenorrhea); pain during sexual intercourse (dyspareunia); sometimes infertility; and sometimes pain on defecation during a period.
The abnormally placed fragments of endometrium pass through the same monthly cycle as does the normal endometrium; they swell before a period and then bleed.
Because there is no outlet for the blood, cysts form. These occasionally rupture, causing severe abdominal pain.
The symptoms of Endometriosis usually disappear during pregnancy, which may cure the condition, and after menopause.

Endometriosis treatment

In mild cases, painkilling drugs may lessen the symptoms.
Rarely, the fragments of endometrium can be found and removed surgically.
All of the symptoms are relieved by artificially inducing menopause by irradiation or surgical removal of the ovaries, so that the uterus and the abnormal tissue cease to be stimulated by ovarian hormones. The hormone pills used for contraception may also help, and these work without sterilizing the patient. A woman with the symptoms should consult a gynecologist.

What is the Endocrine System?

Endocrine System is a network of ductless glands of internal secretion. The endocrine glands produce and/or store various hormones, which are secreted directly into the bloodstream.
The chief endocrine gland is the pituitary, situated beneath the brain and divided into two lobes.
The front (anterior) lobe produces a group of stimulating (tropic) hormones that are carried to other endocrine glands—the thyroid, adrenals and sex glands—to trigger hormone production.
Other anterior pituitary hormones exert their influence directly.
They include prolactin, which maintains milk production from the breasts, and growth hormone. The back (posterior) of the pituitary stores two hormones:
  • ADH (vasopressin) - is carried to the kidneys to help control body water content;  
  • Oxytocin - assists the contraction of the uterus during labor and encourages the flow of milk from the breasts after the birth of the baby.
 The pineal gland secretes melatonin. The function is uncertain in humans but may help regulate sexual development and menstruation.


Each of the adrenal glands, situated over the kidneys, is divided into an outer (cortex) and inner (medulla) region. The medulla makes the hormones adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which help to prepare the body for "fight or flight" in response to danger. The hormones of the cortex include steroids involved in the metabolizing of sugars and proteins and in balancing body water content.

The thyroid gland lies below the voicebox or upper part of the windpipe. It secretes hormones that control the rate at which cells use nutrients. Attached to the back of the thyroid are the four small parathyroid glands whose hormones regulate the amounts of calcium and phosphate in the blood, an activity vital to bone building.

The amount of glucose in the blood is governed by cells in the pancreas, situated beside the duodenum.
The endocrine cells of the gland are clustered m small masses and make two hormones: glucagon, which raises blood glucose levels, and insulin, which decreases them.

The sex glands—ovaries in a female and testes in a male—produce hormones that control the production of mature sex cells and help to determine a person's total sexual development.

Middle Ear Balance - How Does the Ear Act as an Organ of Balance

The inner ear also contains three fluid-filled loops, called semicircular canals, set at-right angles to one another. Any movement of the head affects the fluid in one or more of them.
The ends of the canals contain receptor cells that register movements of the fluid and pass the information to the brain.
The whole system of canals and cavities in the inner ear is called the labyrinth.
Disease or injury that causes malfunction of the labyrinth will cause vertigo, a sensation that the individual or the environment is spinning.
Another area of the inner ear, the saccule and utricle, contains sensitive cells with fine hairs that include small “stones” (otoliths) of calcium carbonate.
When the head is held upright, the otoliths press on certain receptors. If the head is moved, the otoliths press on other receptors. In this way, receptors register any position of the head and pass this information to the brain.
The sense of balance comes from a combination of movement and position of the head.

Diverticulitis definition - What is Diverticulitis?

What is Diverticulitis?

Diverticulitis is a common disease of the bowel, the main part of the large intestine.
Diverticulitis develops from diverticulosis, which involves the formation of pouches (diverticula) on the outside of the colon. Diverticulitis results if one of these diverticula becomes inflamed.
Bacteria may subsequently infect the outside of the colon if an inflamed diverticula bursts open.
If the infection spreads to the lining of the abdominal cavity, (peritoneum), this can cause a potentially fatal illness (peritonitis).
Sometimes inflamed diverticula can cause narrowing of the bowel, leading to an obstruction.
Also, the affected part of the colon could adhere to the bladder or other organ in the pelvic area. Diverticulitis most often affects middle-aged and elderly persons.

Symptoms of diverticulitis 

The symptoms of diverticulitis include localized abdominal pain and tenderness, loose bowel movements or constipation, and fever.
A blood test shows an increased number of white blood cells.

Treatment for diverticulitis

An acute attack of diverticulitis is usually treated with antibiotics.
When the infection has been controlled, patients suffering from such an attack are also placed on a high-fiber diet.
However, recurring acute attacks or complications, such as peritonitis, require surgical treatment.

What are Diuretics and What are the side effects of Diuretics

What are Diuretics

Diuretics are a group of agents that act on the kidneys to increase urine output. This increase in the urine output is accompanied by a loss of sodium and, sometimes, potassium salts.
Alcohol, tea, and coffee are mild, but nonmedical, diuretics.
Diuretics are used to treat virtually any disorder in which there is an excessive build-up of fluid in the body (edema).
These include disorders of the heart, liver, and kidneys.
Some weak diuretics are used to decrease excessive fluid pressure within the eyeball (glaucoma).
Diuretics are used to treat certain lung disorders in which fluid accumulates in the lung tissue (pulmonary edema). They may also be used to decrease high blood pressure (hypertension) and to treat over dosage of certain drugs.

What are the side effects of Diuretics

The adverse effects of diuretics vary according to the specific drug used.
The commonly prescribed diuretics may cause:

  • nausea, 
  • weakness, 
  • skin rashes, and 
  • allergic reactions.

All diuretics should be used with care by diabetics and by those with impaired liver or kidney function. 
Dehydration and shock can occur in some cases, especially among the elderly.
Some diuretics cause increased urinary excretion of potassium. If the level of potassium falls too low in the blood, this can result in an irregular heartbeat, especially among persons who are also taking digitalis.  Diet alone, through the eating of foods rich in potassium (for example, oranges, bananas, and peanuts), may in some cases correct this.

Herniated Disc Definition - What is Herniated Disc

Herniated Disc (Prolapsed Intervertebral Disc), is a disorder of the spine. The discs between the bones of the spine (vertebrae) are composed of gristle-like fibrous tissue with a soft center.
A disc can rupture as a result of strain, allowing its soft center to pass through the ruptured outer fiber.
The soft tissue protrudes into and compresses the spinal canal, which contains the spinal cord.
Pressure on the spinal nerves produces pain, felt either locally (backache) or as referred pain in another part of the body, as in sciatica.
Muscle weakness, paralysis of muscle function, and loss of sensation is possible in severe cases.
In childhood and adolescence, the discs are flexible and pliable, and so strain at this stage is unlikely.
The discs harden in later life, and the soft centers gradually solidify.
By the age of 45 or 50 the center is of the same tough composition as the outer edge.
The discs of the neck (cervical region) and those of the lower spine (lumbar region) are the most likely to rupture because they are the most mobile.
A herniated disc in the thoracic pine, behind the chest, can occur in rare cases.

Symptoms of Herniated Disc

Symptoms of herniated disc in neck is usually the result of a twisting injury that develops into a stiff neck.
The pain is intense when the patient tries to move or cough.
Gradually the pain spreads as the disk presses on the nerves that affect one shoulder and arm.
Loss of sensation in the skin and muscle weakness may develop because of nerve damage.
If the disc protrudes deeply into the spinal cord, there is loss of sensation lower down the body.
It may cause disruption in the nerves controlling walking, or it may cause difficulty in urinating.

The symptoms in the lower spine are usually caused by a herniated disk either between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae or between the fifth lumbar and first sacral vertebrae.
There is severe pain in the back, making it difficult to move.
The pain gradually improves over a matter of days.
The back pain may be followed by sciatica, with shooting pain going down one buttock, the thigh, leg, and foot.
A tingling sensation is common and is aggravated by coughing, sneezing, or bending.
The patient walks with a limp because of spasms in the back muscles, and he or she is unable to raise the affected leg at right angles to the body.

A herniated disk higher in the lumbar region causes pain in the groin and in the front of the thigh.

Osteoarthritis, tumors of the spinal cord, and secondary tumors of the vertebrae produce similar symptoms to those of a herniated disc. Cervical rib trouble may produce disk-like pains down an arm. Spondylolisthesis, in which one vertebra slips forward on another, and ankylosing spondylitis cause similar back pains.

Herniated Disc Treatment

Painkilling drugs may be prescribed in mild cases.
A herniated disk in the neck usually involves immobilizing the neck with a stiff collar. This helps the patient sleep or drive a car without too much pain.
In addition, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy in the form of short-wave diathermy and massage, and in severe cases, hospitalization and continuous traction may be recommended.
If conservative measures fail, surgical removal of the herniated disk may be necessary.

Herniated disk in the lumbar region is treated with rest, painkillers, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Strict bed rest remains extremely important since even standing up dramatically increases the pressure upon the discs.
Traction and/or a surgical corset that immobilizes the spine are commonly used in severe cases.
Manipulative treatment, such as osteopathy, can also help in the treatment of a herniated disk by temporarily reducing pressure on the disk.

Deficiency Diseases Definition - What are Deficiency Diseases

Deficiency diseases are disorders caused by a lack or deficiency of a substances, essential to the proper functioning of the body, such as various vitamins, minerals, and proteins.
Deficiency diseases often result from an inadequate diet, but they can also be caused by metabolic disorders, such as pernicious anemia (which is caused by inadequate absorption of vitamin B12); intestinal disorders; overexcretion of the substance in the urine, feces, or by vomiting; the presence of a parasite, for example, a hookworm or tapeworm; or by a prolonged illness.

The most common deficiency diseases are those caused by a lack of vitamins or minerals.
They include:
  • Anemia (lack of iron);
  • Scurvy (lack of vitamin C);
  • Beriberi (lack of vitamin Bi);
  • Night blindness (lack of vitamin A);
  • Rickets and osteomalacia (lack of vitamin D);
  • Goiter (lack of iodine).

Some symptoms of deficiency diseases?

Scurvy    may cause bleeding from the gums.
Vitamin B deficiencies can cause cracking at the corners of the mouth and a magenta-colored tongue.
Vitamin D deficiency can, when it is severe, result in rickets and body deformities involving long bones.

Deficiency diseases treatment

In most cases the Deficiency diseases are treated by a special diet that is rich in foods that restore the deficient substance. The diet is sometimes supplemented with vitamin tablets or specific drugs.

Pink Eye Information - What Causes Pink Eye?

Pink eye (Conjunctivitis), is inflammation of the membrane covering the eye (the conjunctiva). Acute Pink eye frequently occurs with viral respiratory illnesses, such as the common cold or influenza, and may be highly contagious.
More severe attacks are usually caused by bacterial infections.

What causes pink eye?

Pink eye that is not associated with respiratory disorders may be caused by irritants, such as dust, cosmetics, or smoke, or by an allergic reaction to a specific substance, such as pollen or penicillin.
Pink eye may also result from the eye disorder trachoma and from a number of other rare afflictions or conditions.
Suspected pink eye should always be evaluated promptly by a health professional.

Pink eye symptoms

The eye tends to water profusely and the white of the eye is bloodshot or pink. The eye is painful when moved and may be oversensitive to bright light.
Sometimes, there is a discharge of pus from the eyelids.

How to treat pink eye?

A physician usually prescribes an antibiotic drug and other treatments, such as eyedrops.
Prolonged use of drops, however, may aggravate the inflammation.
Pink eye known to be caused by an allergy may be treated with corticosteroid drugs. Dark glasses give protection against bright light, but a patch over the eye may increase the inflammation.
If the eye is painful, a mild painkiller such as acetaminophen gives relief.
It is important not to rub the eye, because this may transmit the conjunctivitis to the other eye. For the same reason, patients with Pink eye must wash their hands often and use separate towels in order to prevent transmission of the disease.

Symptoms of Brain Concussion - Information on Concussion

Concussion is an injury to a part of the body resulting from a blow or from a violent shaking.
Concussion usually refers to an injury to the brain, which is commonly caused by a head injury. It may also result from a fall in which the point of impact is the lower end of the spine.

Symptoms of brain concussion

The symptoms of brain concussion vary according to the site and extent of the injury. Brain concussion usually, but not always, produces unconsciousness.
The return to consciousness often occurs gradually. Following the initial injury, there may be headache, difficulty in concentrating, nausea, vomiting, difficulty in focusing, and a feeling of depression and irritability.
Events immediately before the injury may be forgotten at first (retrograde amnesia), but the memory of them usually returns.

Brain concussion treatment

A physician should be consulted in all cases of concussion because there may be more serious brain damage.
Bed rest is essential for at least a day after the injury.
The physician may prescribe painkillers to relieve the headache.
Alcohol, sedatives, and tranquilizers may aggravate the symptoms.
The patient should avoid sports and work until he or she is completely recovered.

What are the signs of a concussion when observing a person?

The key sign is level of consciousness.
Is the person conscious?
Can the person be aroused?
Other signs worth observing include unequally dilated pupils, an inability to feel or move some body part, or persistent vomiting.

How is Gender Determined - What are Chromosomes?

Chromosome is a threadlike structure in the nucleus of a cell. Chromosomes are made up of many hundreds of genes, the messengers that carry the “instructions” that determine a person’s hereditary makeup.
There are 46 chromosomes (arranged as 23 pairs) in each human cell except the ova (eggs) and sperm, which have only 23 chromosomes.

What happens to the chromosomes when a cell divides?

The chromosomes divide at the same time as the cell, so that the 2 new cells, each with 46 chromosomes, are identical to the parent cell. Exceptions are the cells that form sperm and ova, which divide to produce sex cells (gametes) with only 23 chromosomes each.
This means that when a sperm joins an ovum at fertilization to form a new cell of 46 chromosomes, it does so with half the genes from the mother and half from the father.

How is gender determined?

The male chromosome is called Y. It is smaller and contains fewer genes than the female chromosome. Each sperm contains either an X or a Y chromosome; each ovum contains a single X chromosome.
When a sperm and an ovum combine to form a new individual, the fertilized ovum contains either two X chromosomes (XX) and is female, or it contains an X and a Y (XY) and is male.

Christmas Disease Definition - What is Christmas Disease

Christmas disease (Hemophilia B), is an inherited deficiency of a plasma protein active in the formation of blood clots.

Christmas disease symptoms

Hemophilia B has the same symptoms as classic hemophilia (hemophilia A), prolonged bleeding from slight injuries and internal bleeding without any known cause.
Christmas disease is usually less severe than classic hemophilia; its severity is dependent on the extent of the plasma protein deficiency.

Christmas disease treatment

Transfusion of blood plasma containing the correct clotting factor is the appropriate treatment.
The condition gets its name from the patient in whom it was first discovered.

Choriocarcinoma Definition - What is Choriocarcinoma

Choriocarcinoma is a cancerous growth of the outer layer of the membrane (chorion) that surrounds a fetus in the womb.
Choriocarcinoma is relatively rare condition in the United States, occurring in about 1 out of every 45,000 pregnancies, and is more likely to occur in women over the age of 40.

Choriocarcinoma symptoms

An obstetrician looks for signs of the disease in pregnant women who have had the formation of a hydatidiform mole, which leads to an unusually large uterus for that stage of pregnancy.
But mole formations are not necessarily a sign of choriocarcinoma; they occur in about 1 out of every 2,000 pregnancies (especially in older women), and over 80 percent of these moles are benign.
Other symptoms of choriocarcinoma may include vaginal bleeding and extreme nausea.

After the removal of a hydatidiform mole, the effectiveness of treatment can be assessed by measuring human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels in the blood.
Normally, these levels should drop dramatically after the removal of the mole.
If the levels do not drop, this is a sign of a choriocarcinoma.
Repeated blood tests are made to determine the level of these hormones in the mother’s bloodstream. If this level remains above normal, treatment with anticancer drugs (chemotherapy) is given to destroy the growth.
The hydatidiform mole may also be suctioned from the uterus; occasionally, a hysterectomy will be performed (especially with older patients).
Choriocarcinoma may, on rare occasion, appear in the testes.

Chorea Symptoms and Causes - What is Chorea?

Chorea is a disorder of the nervous system that is characterized by spasm of the facial muscles and involuntary contortions of the limbs. 
The two common forms of chorea are unrelated:
  1. Sydenham’s chorea and
  2. Huntington’s chorea. 

1.Sydenham's chorea

Sydenham’s chorea is a disorder in which the small arteries of the brain become inflamed. It is an allergic reaction to streptococcal infection, such as meningitis, some forms of pneumonia, and scarlet fever.
Sydenham’s chorea commonly follows several months after an attack of rheumatic fever and is most likely to occur in children between the ages of 5 and 15.

Sydenham's chorea symptoms

The symptoms of Sydenham’s chorea include facial contortions, grunts, and occasional difficulty in speaking. Sometimes only one side of the body is affected.

Sydenham's chorea treatment

Bed rest is essential. Sedative drugs help to control the involuntary contortions, and antibiotic drugs are usually prescribed to fight infection. The disease is often treated with regular high dosages of aspirin. Recovery may be complete within 3 or 4 months, but further attacks occur in about 30 percent of cases.

2.Huntington’s chorea

Huntington’s chorea, or disease, is an inherited disorder of the central nervous system, which usually affects an equal number of males and females between the ages of 30 and 50.

Huntington’s chorea symptoms

The symptoms of Huntington’s chorea are the gradual onset of involuntary, jerky, and contorted movements of the limbs. Mental deterioration and severe personality change are associated symptoms. The patient may eventually need institutional care.

Huntington’s chorea treatment

No effective form of treatment has been found for the disorder. There is a 50 percent chance that a child of someone with Huntington’s chorea will develop it later in life.
The traditional medical advice has been that a person who has a parent with the disorder should not have children. There is now in the experimental stage a blood test that can identify the defective gene responsible for Huntington’s chorea long before any symptoms appear.
The availability of this test may bring up difficult ethical and legal questions concerning who has the right to know the results.

Cholesterol Information - What is Considered High Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fatty substance found in all animal tissues. The substance makes up an important part of the membranes of each cell in the human body. The liver uses cholesterol to manufacture bile acids, which aid indigestion.
Cholesterol is also utilized in the production of certain hormones, including sex hormones.

Where is cholesterol produced?

The human body manufactures most of its own cholesterol. All body cells are capable of production, but most is made by liver cells.
Cholesterol also enters the body in food, particularly from butter, eggs, fatty meats, shellfish, and organ meats, such as liver and brains.

How is cholesterol transported in the body?

Three types of special molecules called lipoproteins:
  • high-density lipoproteins (HDL), 
  • low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and 
  • very low- density lipoproteins (VLDL)
transport cholesterol from the liver through the bloodstream to cells throughout the body.

What does high cholesterol mean?

Although the body needs cholesterol, high levels of LDL-type and VLDL-type cholesterol have been linked to certain diseases, particularly atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries).
One large study of middle-aged men with elevated cholesterol levels showed that for each one percent reduction in blood cholesterol level the chance of heart attack was reduced by two percent. Because of this, many physicians have recommended a diet low in cholesterol and saturated fats to reduce risk of heart attacks and atherosclerosis elsewhere in the body.
Each person’s ability to maintain a healthy level of cholesterol is determined partially by inheritance and partially by diet.
Foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol should be reduced in quantity and frequency.
Consultation with a physician or nutritionist will help direct effective changes toward a more healthy diet and lifestyle. Several books are also available for this purpose. Adults should have their blood cholesterol checked every five years by their physician in order to control this very important health risk factor.
It should be checked more often if other cardiac risk factors are present.

Good cholesterol - What is good cholesterol?

HDL-type cholesterol is sometimes referred to as “good cholesterol” because, unlike the other types, high levels of HDL-type cholesterol may actually provide protection against heart attack.

How to increase good cholesterol?

Exercise and a diet high in fish may improve the HDL level.