Protons Neutrons and Electrons

What is a Proton?

Protons are positively charged (+1), quite the opposite, as the electric charge of electrons (-1).
The number of protons in the nucleus determines the total amount of positive charge in the atom.
In electrically neutral atom, the number of protons and electrons is equal, such that positive and negative charges are balanced to zero.
Proton is very small, but it is quite massive in comparison with other particles that make up matter. Mass of the proton is about 1840 times the mass of the electron.

What is a Neutron?

Neutrons are about the same size as protons, but slightly heavier.
Without the neutrons, the repulsion between the positively charged protons would cause the nucleus to apart.
Consider an element of helium, which consists of two protons in its nucleus.
If the core does not contain neutrons, it will be unstable due to the electrical repulsion between protons.
The nucleus of the element helium requires one or two neutrons to be stable.
Most atoms are stable and exist for a long period of time, but some of the atoms are unstable and spontaneously decompose and change or decay other atoms.
Unlike electrons, elementary particles, protons and neutrons are made up of other, smaller particles called quarks.
Physicists know of six different quarks. Neutrons and protons are made of quarks and down quarks-up of two of the six different types of quarks.
Fancy names quarks do not have anything to do with their properties, the names are simply labels to distinguish one from the other quark.

What is a Electron?

Electrons are tiny, negatively charged particles that form a cloud around the core of an atom. Each electron carries a single basic unit of negative electric charge, (marked  -1).


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