What is Blood Clotting?

What is Blood Clotting?

A young healthy person can lose a third of its blood, and still survive, but continuous bleeding or blood loss when we are sick can be very dangerous.
Nature protected us from this danger, by enabling the blood to clot. 
But if the clot is formed in the circulatory system, it could be just as dangerous. 
When the blood is spilled into a smooth or oiled glass dish, it will not clot!
If we plunge a glass rod into the blood, it is still not clot.
But if we take a wooden stick, than it would began to clot.
Therefore, it appears that it is necessary to have an uneven surfaces or vascular injuries to start the process of blood clotting.
First, into the blood appear very fine threads of a substance called fibrin. These strings are stretched to all directions and create a kind of network. They catch all blood cells, just as the spider catches insects into his net. This is where the blood stops moving and turns into a sort of pond with stagnant blood cells.
Fibrin threads are strong and very pliable and keep cells connected to clot.
A blood clot is a plug created by nature that would protect us from loss of blood.
Blood clotting time is not same in all people. 
There are people whose blood coagulate very slowly or does not clot at all. This disease is called hemophilia.

How Does The Circulatory System Work?

Simply stated, the blood circulates because it is pushed by the hearth like a pump. 
Arteries and veins are tubes through which the blood is delivered. 
Blood flows and transports air from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive organs to other parts of the body and takes out carbon dioxide and other unnecessary substances from the tissues.

Blood Vessels

Blood vessels are actually two pipe systems, one of which is large and the other small.
We call them big and small circulation.
Both are connected with the heart, “the pump”, but these two systems are not connected.
Small blood stream leads from the heart to the lungs and back, and a large from the heart goes out to the various parts of the body and back again to the heart.
The three types of blood vessels are called arteries, veins and capillaries. 
Arteries take the blood out of the heart, and veins return it back there. Capillaries are the network of small blood vessels, which connect the arterial and venous circulation.

How the heart works ?

The hearth is comparable to a double floor building.
To the first floor correspond the right and left pre-chambers (left and right atrium), and the ground floors are the right and left ventricles (chambers).
There are "doors", called valves, between the floors on each side (house), but none between the two "houses".
Also, there are exit doors of both ventricles which lead to the arteries and entrance doors leading from the veins in the atriums.
In a healthy heart all the door close perfectly, because the blood, once pushed out of the heart, may not return the same hole.
Valves open and close with each heartbeat.
If we follow the path of blood through the entire body, we can note the following: the blood with oxygen from the lungs comes to the left atrium - " the floor". From there passes into the left ventricle “the ground floor", and then into a large artery called the aorta.
The aorta with its branches drains the blood to all organs and body parts.
Blood passes through the capillaries trough the smallest arteries and veins. From there it flows into larger and larger veins, and from the intestines, spleen and stomach first passes through the liver, and finally, all blood is collected in the right atrium of the heart.
From there, it goes into the right chamber, and then to the arteries leading to the lungs.
There, it releases the carbon dioxide and certain parts of water, and instead takes oxygen. Then it is ready to return to the left pre-chamber and the whole process starts over again.
Interesting facts about the human heart
  • Adult heart is the size of a fist, and weighs about 300 grams, yet it for 24 hours can produce energy sufficient to lift about 70 tons (or one locomotive) to 33 centimeters above the ground!
  • During the day, the heart tightens and relaxes approximately 100,000 times. 
  • The heart of adult men in 24 hours, can pump 16.5 liters of blood.

How Do Broken Bones Heal?

Human bones are so strong that it is a wonder that they ever break! Bone can bear a load, 30 times greater than brick can bear.

What is the strongest bone in your body?

The strongest bone in the body is the jaw. It can withstand a load of 1,600 kg (3527 Pounds).
However, the bone is sometimes broken by the action of strong force.

Types of bone fractures

Each fracture has a name, depending on how the bone was broken.
  • If it is cracked at one part of its surface, so that its ends are still connected, then it cracks or incomplete fracture. 
  • If the bone is completely broken in two, it's an easy or simple fracture. When the bone is broken in more than two, then it's a complex fracture. 
  • Finally, if parts of broken bones go through the muscles and skin, it is an open fracture.

Bone fracture healing process

Setting parts of a broken bone is like gluing the pieces of a broken saucer.
Parts of broken bones must be set next to each other so that they touch. But the doctor does not use any glue.
Connective tissue cells of the bone parts multiply and connect broken bone.
Bone tissue has great ability of self repetition.
Bone fractures, its parts and soft tissue, muscles and blood vessels around the fracture are torn or injured.
One part of the injured tissue dies.
The whole environment of fractures, which includes bone pieces and soft tissue is soaked in clotted blood and lymph.
Just a few moments after the break, the young connective tissue cells begin to appear in the clotted mass. This is the first step in the healing of fractures.
These cells multiply quickly and soon after them accumulates calcium.
For 72 to 96 hours after the break they create a tissue that connects the ends of the bones.
In the newly created tissue its accumulated more calcium than usual.
Calcium helps to re-create the hard bone, which gradually, over several months, develop into normal bone. Fractures of the limbs is usually put a cast, which prevents bone moving, and keeps broken parts together touching.

What is Regeneration?

Would not it be wonderful if people who have lost an arm or leg, or just a finger in an accident, could just grow a new one?
This, unfortunately, when it comes to people, it is not possible, but there are living beings in which this is possible.
The process by which living organisms restore the structure or sometimes even whole organs is called regeneration.
Among living beings regeneration is quite different.
For example, in some species of marine worms and star fish, a tiny fraction of the body can rebuild the whole organism. If there's only a small part, from it will grow a whole new body.
On the other hand, we have a kind of regeneration that occurs in our own bodies.
The surface layer of our skin is constantly wasted in the form of small pieces and replaced by other cells.
Our hair and nails are refurbished.
Even our permanent teeth are one example of regeneration.
If the organism is more complex, and the man has a very complex organism, his ability to regenerate is smaller. 
Man, like other mammals, can’t restore any organ as a whole.
But, lizards and insects can regenerate entire limbs.
Regeneration in humans is actually a repair of damage, such as broken bones, skin injuries and some types of nerve.

Regeneration is done in two ways. 

In the first case, the new tissue grows on the surface of the wound. In the other remaining parts are changed and reorganized, but does not create new material.
When new material grows (such as limbs), it grows in this way. Bud for regeneration is created on the surface of the wound. It is usually conical in shape and contains embryonic type of cell or cells such as those bearing the flesh.
These cells can develop into cells designed specifically for the construction of a new organ, they grow, and a new organ is gradually created.

What are Genes Made of?

Even before the baby is born, watching his parents, we can predict many of the biological features that it will have.
This is possible because we know the laws of the legacy.

Dominant and Recessive Traits

For example, if one parent has brown eyes, and the other blue, the child will have brown eyes. 
If both parents have blue irises, the child and parents have blue eyes. If one parent has curly hair, the child will have an equal chance of inheriting curly hair and blue to succeed.
However, the laws of inheritance in man are sometimes very complex. 
If the father has characteristics very different from the characteristics of the mother, then one of two opposite tendencies override other and the child will report the characteristics of one parent and not from the other.

That distinction which prevails is called dominant and the other recessive or suppressed. Brown eyes are dominant hereditary qualities, and the blue recessive. That’s why the child in our example will have brown eyes.

How are these qualities transferred from parents to a child? 

They are transferred within the nucleus of the egg cell and the nucleus of the seminal cells. The nucleus is composed of a large number, perhaps hundreds, of particles called genes.
Genes are not scattered at random in the nucleus, but are connected in series, a string of beads.

Mature egg cell has a series of 24 such genes, just as there are a mature seed cells.
When the egg and semen cells are connected together, they get along 24 pairs of these arrays which are called chromosomes.

Genes, even in one and the same chromosome, differ in terms of their impact on development.
Some manage the development of one, the other the development of other organs or body characteristics.
Yet, they all participate in joint development of the whole body.
The characteristics of the burden inherit one set of genes together, but sometimes strings can break and can reach mutual exchange of particles with other arrays.

Why Do We Need Water in Our Body - The Importance of Water

If we get thirsty and we have no opportunities to drink something, we feel such a great thirst that we forget about everything else.
We are all sometimes were thirsty, but can you imagine how it feels to someone who did not drink water for days?
If a person does not enter into his body any fluid for three weeks, he is sentenced to death.
Simply, our bodies need to supplement their supplies of fluid, although 50 to 60 percent of its weight is water!
An average adult loses during the day, about 700 g of water by sweating and excretes about 1.3 liters (0.34 gallons) through waste products.
On the other hand, regardless of whether or not we are drinking, we are still taking in water in our organism.
By digesting food, our organism gets almost 350 g of liquid a day. 
But this process of loss and fluid intake is not sufficient for keeping water level, which is essential to our body.

Why we need to drink water?

Thirst is a sign that warns us that our body needs more water.
Many believe that thirst is due to dry mouth or dry throat, but that's not true.
Thirst occurs for various reasons, such as stress, hard work or simply slow in the secretion of salivary glands. Their work can be increased (for example by taking lemon juice), but it will not affect our thirst.
In other words, the work of the salivary glands may be normal, the stomach, bloodstream and urinary bladder may be full of water and yet we still can feel thirsty.
So someone can drink a few glasses of brandy and still be thirsty, if between the patella ate salted peanuts.
The reason for this phenomenon lies in the fact that changes in the amount of salt in our blood causes thirst.
In the blood there are certain normal amounts of water and salt. If this ratio changes in favor of the salt, than we are thirsty.
In the brain there is a center for thirst that reacts to a certain amount of salt in the blood. If this amount changes, the center responds to the way that sends messages to the back wall of the throat. From there they go into the brain and because of these mixed feelings thirst is generated.

Benefits of drinking water

Water makes up to sixty percent of the human body.
If we were able to squeeze the human body like a lemon, we would get about fifty liters (13 gallons) of water. This water for the substances that contains is not like plain water.
In blood vessels there is about four liters of water, which is kept by the heart in constant circulation through the body.
The blood water with its constant flowing reaches every cell of the human body.
Water acts as a conductive of heat throughout the body. 
Even if we do not drink water during the day, one liter of water enters our body trough the solid foods that we eat as: vegetables, fruits, bread and meat which contain thirty to ninety percent of water.
In addition, everyone brings about two liters of water a day in liquid form.
Drunk water from the intestines goes into the blood.During the day, about ten liters (2.6 gallons) of water circulates between the various organs of the human body. 
For example, when we chew food, we're sucking at the same time a small amount of saliva from the salivary glands and is swallowed with food. Soon after the water in the salivary glands, is recovered from the blood vessel water.
The amount of water in the blood remains constantly the same. 
When we are very thirsty, after the hard work during the hot days, the vessels contain the same amount of water. No matter how much we drink water, the amount of water in the blood vessels remains the same.

What happens to the excess water?

It is distributed in various organs: intestines, liver, muscles and kidneys.

What is the normal body temperature ?

To live and work the human body needs energy, which is obtained by burning the food we eat.
The result of the combustion of food in our body, of course, is not a big fire or heat. It's very mild, heat set correctly.
In the human body there are substances that combine oxygen with fuel in a predetermined manner.

What is the normal body temperature ?

Human body maintains a constant temperature between 36.6 ° C and 37 ° C (98.6F), regardless of the ambient temperature. 
This is accomplished through the center of the brain called “the center for maintaining body heat”.
It actually consists of three centers: one that monitors the temperature of blood, the other, which raises the temperature of the blood when it drops - center for conducting heat, and a third that allows cooling the blood when the temperature is too high – center for cooling.

What happens if the body temperature falls?

Part of the nervous system to maintain body heat is encouraged to take the action.
Then some glands secrete juices whose role is to increase the combustion of nutrients in the muscle and liver, and so the internal body heat rises.

At the same time, the skin blood vessels shrink, so that the radiation loses less heat.
Skin glands participate in this excretion with fatty substance that helps the body to retain heat.
Shaking occurs unconsciously, when the temperature of the blood falls too low.
Center for heat production in the brain makes us tremble in order to produce the more heat!
If the body temperature rises, the center of the cooling starts working.
It widens the blood vessels in the skin, so that excess heat radiation leaves the body.
In addition, cooling of the body is achieved with sweating.

Marimba instrument - What is Marimba

Among the tribes of southern Africa an instrument similar to xylophone holds the chief place in festivals, and is played upon with considerable skill by many native musicians.
Excerpt from: How? or, Spare hours made profitable for boys and girls by Holbrook, KennedyPublished 1887
This piano, called by them "marimba," consists of two bars of wood placed side by side ; in the most southern portions quite straight, but farther north, bent round so as to resemble half the tire of a carriage-wheel ; across these are placed about fifteen wooden keys, each of which is two or three inches broad, and fifteen or eighteen inches long, and their thickness, as in the case of the xylophone, is regulated according to the deepness of the note required.
Each of the keys has a calabash beneath it ; from the upper part of each a portion is cut off to enable them to embrace the bars, and form hollow sounding-boards to the keys, which also are of different sizes, according to the note required ; and little drumsticks, like those spoken of above, elicit the music.
Rapidity of execution seems much admired among them, and the music is pleasant to the ear.
In Angola, the Portuguese use the marimba in their dances.