Learn How to Sketch - Hints on Sketching

How to sketch. - The drawing of a cathedral with all its complexities and innumerable details is governed by the same rules as the drawing of a barn or even of a brick, and these rules are simple, and are easily stated.
In sketching we have to draw things as they seem, not as we know them to be.
The top of a bucket is a perfect circle; yet when we draw it, unless we look down upon it from a point exactly above its centre, we represent it by an oval.
Similarly, when we look along a stretch of railway line we know that the lines are exactly parallel, but they seem to draw nearer to each other.
The rails of a fence are of equal height, and have been put at equal distances apart, but as we look along the fence it seems as though further away the workman had used shorter posts, and had put them nearer together.
If we can see through a railway tunnel, it looks as though the way out at the other end were smaller than the way in at this; but we know they are of the same size.
The rules under which lines seem to draw together and spaces become smaller have been called the rules of perspective, and it is important that we should learn these rules.
Luckily they are few and not difficult to understand, and we will learn them as we go along in drawing a few simple forms that shall include them.
In Fig. 1 we have a box, its corner towards us.

In the box itself the lines A B, C D, and E F would be the same distance from each other from end to end, and if they were made ever so long would never meet, but here in the drawing they meet at G.

In the same way the lines A H, C E, and D F, which in the actual box are parallel or equi-distant and so draw no nearer to each other, meet in the drawing at I.

In the drawing, as in reality, the lines E H, C A, and D B are parallel, and would never meet, however far we might lengthen them.

The lines of the brass round the key-hole follow the same rules.
Let this box illustrate another matter.
We move it into a slightly different position, so that we almost lose sight of the end E C A H. This end, in the language of artists, is now said to be “fore-shortened.” The lines that draw nearer together are said to “vanish.”
The point where they meet is their vanishing point.

Fig. 1.


Fig. 2.

Fig. 3.

We will give some further examples of the same rules of perspective applied to different forms.
The young artist standing before a scene he is going to sketch should decide what point is opposite his eyes.
It may be some place in a church wall or in a tree, or even in the sky.
However, having fixed it, mark it also upon your paper, and then draw a horizontal line through it.

In the scene we have selected we stand upon a hill and look at a farmhouse that stands upon another hill.
The point opposite our eyes is the window A. It will be noticed that the lines above the eyes come down to the line of sight or horizontal line, B C.
Those below rise to it. Lines that are parallel to each other, whether they are roof lines tiles, the tops or bottoms of windows, meet in the same point, so that if you get one of those lines right, it is easy to get all the others right by continuing them to the same point.

Fig. 4. Rigg’s Farm, Near Aysgarth, Wensleydale.

From this sketch, and the foregoing examples, we arrive at the following rules:—
  • Horizontal, receding lines, if they are below the level of the eyes, appear to rise.
  • Horizontal, receding lines, if they are above the level of the eyes, appear to descend.
  • Spaces, as they recede, appear to become smaller.
  • Objects, as they recede, appear to become smaller.
  • All horizontal receding lines have their vanishing point upon the line of sight.
  • All parallel retiring lines have the same vanishing point as each other.
  • All horizontal lines which are parallel with the picture plane are drawn parallel with each other, and with the line of sight.
  • All horizontal retiring lines forming right angles with the picture plane, or with our position, have the point of sight for their vanishing point.

We have here introduced a new term, the picture plane.
The best way to understand this is to imagine you are looking at everything through a pane of glass. In this case the glass would be the picture plane, and if we could stand steadily enough in one place and trace upon the window pane the lines of the streets and houses, we should find the lines upon the pane following the rules we have given.

Many of the rules of perspective are to be seen in the sketch of Rigg’s Farm, Wensleydale, Yorkshire, Fig. 4.
The receding lines of the road, the grass edges, and the walls; the front of the farmhouse is so much foreshortened that it is possible to see only a very small part of it, though the building is really a long one.
 Sketch at Norton.

We have given also a sketch by Rembrandt, and a pen and ink landscape drawing made at Norton in North Derbyshire by Charles Ashmore.

Saskia Van Ulenburgh, Rembrandt’s Wife.
From a drawing by Rembrandt in the Berlin Museum.

Excerpt from the book:
Three Hundred Things A Bright Boy Can Do
BY MANY HANDS
FULLY ILLUSTRATED
LONDON
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO., LTD. 1914

How to Make a Kite - Step by Step Guide

How to make a kite for kids.—Take a lath, A, B, which should be three feet long and about an inch wide.
One of the ordinary laths used by builders will be quite suitable if one of the lighter ones is selected, and if care is taken to choose a straight one.
Next take a cane or other piece of light flexible wood, and bind the centre of it tightly at the point G an inch below A.
Bend the cane into a semi-circle and connect C and D with string.
If this has been done properly the distance from C to D will be two feet.
Now connect D B C with string and the frame will be ready.

Many years ago it was possible to cover a kite with ordinary newspaper, but the paper that is used now is not strong enough, and it is better to use calico.
 Place the frame upon the calico and cut round the frame with scissors, not close to the frame, but leaving a margin of calico.
Turn this over string and cane and stitch it in position.
This may be done with a sewing machine. At E midway between H G bore a hole with a pricker, and another at F, Pg 141 which is the same distance from H as E is.
String a foot long should connect E and F, and this is kept in position by having knotted ends so that the ends cannot pass through the holes at E and F.
This string will not be tight, but will hang loosely. At C and D tassels about eight inches long may be fixed.

The tail is made by folding paper. Take a number of pieces about five inches long and four broad, and fold them as though you were making spills for the lighting of candles.
How long the tail should be is a matter for experiment.
Try it with forty and a tassel at the end, and you will see afterwards when you try to fly the kite if that is the right length and weight.
Attach your long flying line now to the string that connects E and F, about four and a half inches below E.

Choose a breezy day and ask someone to face the wind and hold the kite aloft. Keeping the line tight, run a few yards in the face of the wind to give the kite a start upon its upward journey.
Now is the time to see if the tail is too heavy or too light.
If the kite labours upwards and shows a tendency to come straight down, tail first, then it may be inferred that the tail is too heavy, and by reducing the number of “chickens” as they are called in some parts of the country, and by taking from the tassel the kite may be relieved of its too heavy burden.
If, on the other hand, the tail is not heavy enough, the kite will plunge madly from side to side and will dive downwards head foremost, demanding more “chickens” or a heavier tassel.
The kite may be flown in the dark with a Chinese lantern where the tassel is.


Excerpt from the book:
Three Hundred Things A Bright Boy Can Do
BY MANY HANDS
FULLY ILLUSTRATED
LONDON
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO., LTD. 1914

Puzzle Games for Kids - THE CROSS PUZZLE

Cut three pieces of paper to the shape of No. 1, one to the shape of No. 2, and one to that of No. 3. Let them be of proportional sizes. Then place the pieces together so as to form a cross.

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6. ANSWER TO THE CROSS PUZZLE.


Solution cross puzzle


Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Funny Games for Kids to Play at Home - THE CIRCLE PUZZLE

Get a piece of cardboard, the size and shape of the diagram, and punch in it twelve circles or holes in the position shown.
The puzzle is, to cut the cardboard into four pieces of equal size, each piece to be of the same shape, and to contain three circles, without cutting into any of them.

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ANSWER TO THE CIRCLE PUZZLE.



Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Puzzle Games for Kids - THE VERTICAL LINE PUZZLE and THE CARDBOARD PUZZLE.

THE VERTICAL LINE PUZZLE.

Draw six vertical lines, as below, and, by adding five other lines to them, let the whole form nine.

THE CARDBOARD PUZZLE.

Take a piece of cardboard or leather, of the shape and measurement indicated by the diagram, cut it in such a manner that you yourself may pass through it, still keeping it in one piece.

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2. ANSWER TO VERTICAL LINE PUZZLE.


3. ANSWER TO CUT CARD PUZZLE.

Double the cardboard or leather lengthways down the middle, and then cut first to the right, nearly to the end (the narrow way), and then to the left, and so on to the end of the card; then open it and cut down the middle, except the two ends. The diagram shows the proper cuttings. By opening the card or leather, a person may pass through it. A laurel leaf may be treated in the same manner.


Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Puzzle Games for Kids - THE DIVIDED GARDEN


A person let his house to several inmates, who occupied different floors, and having a garden attached to the house, he was desirous of dividing it among them.
There were ten trees in the garden, and he was desirous of dividing it so that each of the five inmates should have an equal share of garden and two trees.
How did he do it?


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1. THE DIVIDED GARDEN ANSWER.



Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Cool Card Tricks Revealed - THE QUEEN DIGGING FOR DIAMONDS

Select from a pack the aces, kings, queens, and knaves, together with four common cards of each suit. Lay down the four queens in a row, and say,
“Here are four queens going to dig for diamonds.
(Lay a common diamond over each queen.)
They each took a spade with them (place a common spade on each diamond) and dug until they were nearly tired.
Their four kings, thinking that they might be attacked by robbers, sent four soldiers to keep guard.
(Lay an ace on each spade.)
Evening came, and the queens had not returned, so the kings, fearing that they might have come to harm, became uneasy and set off themselves.
(Place a king on each ace.)
They were only just in time, for as they came along, they met their queens being carried off by four villains (lay a knave on each king), who, although only armed with clubs (place a common club on each knave), had overpowered the guards and driven them off.
But the four kings, being possessed of bold hearts (lay a common heart over each king), soon vanquished the villains, and bound them.”
Gather up the cards, place the heaps upon each other and direct some one to cut them.
Have them cut four or five times, and continue to do so until a common heart appears at the bottom.
Then continue the tale, and say,
“The party then returned home in the following order. First the queen (lay down the top card) with the diamonds which she had found (lay down the second card, which will be a diamond) in one hand, and her spade (the third card will be a spade) in the other, &c. &c.”
You continue dealing out the cards in that manner, and it will be found that they will be in precisely the same order as when they were taken up.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Cool Card Tricks Revealed - TO TELL THE NUMBERS ON TWO UNSEEN CARDS

As in the preceding trick, the ace counts eleven, and the court cards ten each. Let the person who chooses the two cards lay them on the table with their faces downward, and place on each as many as will make their number twenty-five.

Take the remaining cards and count them, when they will be found to be just as many as the points in the two cards.
For example, take an ace and a queen, i. e. eleven and ten, and lay them on the table. On the ace you must put fourteen cards, and on the queen fifteen.
There will be then fifteen cards in one heap and sixteen in the other: these added together make thirty-one cards: these subtracted from the number of cards in the pack, i. e. fifty-two, leave twenty-one, the joint number of the ace and the queen.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Cool Card Tricks Revealed - TO ASCERTAIN THE NUMBER OF POINTS ON THREE UNSEEN CARDS.

In this amusement the ace counts eleven, the court cards ten each, and the others according to the number of their spots.

Ask any one to choose any three cards, and lay them on the table, with their faces downwards. On each of these he must place as many as with the number of the card will make fifteen.
He gives you the remaining cards, and when you have them in your hand, you count them over on the pretence of shuffling them, and by adding sixteen, you will have the number of points on the three cards.

For example, the spectator chooses a four, an eight, and a king. On the four he places eleven cards, on the eight seven, and on the king five. There will be then six cards left.
Add to these six sixteen, and the result will be twenty-two, which is the number of points on the three cards, the king counting ten, added to the eight and the four.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Cool Card Tricks Revealed - THE NAILED CARD.

Take a flat-headed nail, and file it down until its point is as sharp as a needle, and the head quite flat. The nail should be about half an inch long, or even shorter if anything.
Pass the nail through the centre of any card,—say the ace of spades,—and conceal it in your left hand.

Take another pack of cards, get the ace of spades to the bottom, and perform the preceding trick. When the cards are returned, shuffle them about, and exchange the pierced card for the other.
Put the pierced card at the bottom of the pack, and throw the cards violently against a door, when the nail will be driven in by the pressure of the other cards against its head, and the chosen card will be seen nailed to the door.
The nail should be put through the face of card, so that when the others fall on the floor, it remains facing the spectators.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Best Card Tricks Revealed - THE SLIPPED CARD

Ascertain the bottom card of the pack; hold the cards in your left hand, with their faces downwards.
Place your right hand upon them, and with your right fore-finger slide them slowly over each other, asking some one to stop any card he chooses, by putting his finger upon it. When he has done so, open the pack at that card, but while opening it, make the pass, and bring the bottom card under the one touched.
Hold up the cards, and ask the chooser to be sure of his card; hand all the cards to him, and let him shuffle as much as he chooses.
Afterwards discover the card in any manner that you prefer. The following is a good plan.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Best Card Tricks Revealed - THE SURPRISE

When you have discovered a card, the following plan will make a striking termination to the trick. Get the card to the bottom of the pack, and tell one of the spectators to hold the cards by one corner as tightly as he can.
Give them a sharp rap with your finger,—not with your hand,—and all the cards will be struck out of his hold, and fall on the floor, except the bottom card, which will remain between his finger and thumb. It has a rather more dashing effect, if you put the chosen card at the top, and strike them upwards, when the whole pack will fly about the room, like a flock of butterflies, only leaving the top card in the person’s grasp.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Best Card Tricks Revealed - HEADS AND TAILS

While you are shuffling the cards, contrive to arrange quietly all their heads one way, or as many as possible, rejecting all the diamonds except the king, queen, knave, and seven, and passing them to the bottom.
Put the pack upon the table, take off a number of the upper cards, and offer them for some one to choose a card from.
While he is looking at it, turn the cards round, and offer them to him, in order that he may replace it. Shuffle the cards, and on looking them over, the chosen card will be standing with its head one way, while the others are reversed.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Best Card Tricks Revealed - TO CALL THE CARDS OUT OF THE PACK

Tell the spectators that you will call six cards out of the pack. Secure a card,—say the ace of spades,—in the palm of your hand. Throw the pack on the table, face downwards, spread out the cards, give one of the spectators your conjuring wand, and tell him, when you name a card, to touch one, which you will take up.

First name the ace of spades. He touches a card, which you take up without showing the face of it. This card may be, say the eight of diamonds. Put it into your left hand, and place it upon the ace of spades which is already there, so that the two look like one card. Then call for the eight of diamonds. Another card is touched, say the queen of clubs. This you put with the others, and, after pretending to calculate, call for the queen of clubs.

Proceed in this manner until six cards have been drawn. Then substitute the last card drawn (which is of course a wrong one) for the ace of spades, and conceal it in the palm of your hand. Then strew the others on the table, and while the eyes of the spectators are fixed upon them, get rid of the card in your left hand.

It is a good plan to ask some one to write down the names of the cards as they are called, and then to have the list called over, in order that every one may see that there has been no mistake.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Card Tricks Revealed - THE CARD FOUND UNDER THE HAT

Have a needle stuck just inside your sleeve. Hand the cards, &c. just as in the preceding trick, and tell the taker to put the card on the top.
Take out the needle, and prick a hole nearly through the top left-hand corner.
Replace the needle, shuffle the cards, or let any one shuffle them.
Place the pack on the table, cover them with a hat, and the marked card will be known by a little raised knob on the right-hand top corner.
Draw out card by card, saying whether it is that card or not, until you come to the marked one, which you throw on the table carelessly, and when you are about taking out another card, stop suddenly, and pretend to find, by some magic process, that it is the chosen card.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Card Tricks Revealed - THE CARD FOUND AT THE SECOND GUESS

Offer the cards to any one, and let him draw one. You then hold the cards behind your back, and tell him to place his card on the top.
Pretend to make a great shuffling, but only turn that card with its back to the others, still keeping it at the top.
Then hold up the cards with their faces towards the spectator, and ask him if the bottom card is his.
While doing so, you inspect his card at your leisure.
He of course denies it, and you begin shuffling again furiously.
“Let me do that,” he will probably say; so, as you are perfectly acquainted with his card, you let him shuffle as much as he likes, and then, when you get the cards back again, shuffle until his card is at the bottom.
Then pass them behind your back, make a ruffling noise with them, and show him his own card at the bottom.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Four Kings Card Trick - Card Tricks Revealed

Take the four kings out of a pack of cards, and also two other court cards, which are not to be shown. Spread out the kings before the spectators, but conceal the two court cards between the third and fourth kings.
Lay the cards face downwards on the table. Take off the bottom card, which is of course one of the kings; show it as if by accident, and place it on the top.
Take the next card, (which is one of the court cards,) and place that in the middle of the pack.
Take the third card, (i. e. the second court card,) and place that also near the middle of the pack. There will then be one king at the top and three at the bottom.
Ask any one to cut the cards, and to examine them when he will find all four kings together in the middle of the pack.

It is better to use court cards to place between the third and fourth kings, because if the cards should slip aside, they would not be so readily distinguished as common cards.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Card Tricks Revealed - THE CARD NAMED WITHOUT BEING SEEN.

As in the last trick, cast a glance at the bottom card, say the ace of spades. Lay out the pack in as many heaps as you like, noting where that one is laid which contains that bottom card.
Ask any one to take up the top card of any heap, look at it, and replace it.
You then gather up the heaps apparently by chance, but you take care to put the heap containing the bottom card upon the card which has been chosen. You then give any one the cards to cut, and on counting them over, the card that immediately follows the ace of spades is the card chosen.

If by any accident the two cards should be separated when cut, the upper card of the pack is the chosen one, and can be picked out with seeming care.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Card Tricks Revealed - TO TELL A CARD BY ITS BACK

While shuffling the pack, cast a glance at the bottom card, make the pass, and bring it to the top. Continue to shuffle, and lay upon it by degrees as many cards as you like, say six. Then lay the pack on the table, face downwards, and divide it into seven heaps, beginning at the bottom, and leave the seventh heap larger than any of the others.

When you have done this, take one card from the top of the seventh heap, appear to calculate, and lay it, face upwards, on one of the other heaps. Do so with five more cards, thus leaving your slipped card at the top of the seventh heap. You then announce that by the aid of the six cards you will name the seventh. You name it accordingly, after carefully studying the other cards, and on asking a spectator to take it up, it will be seen that you are right.

If you place five cards above the slipped card, you will lay out six heaps, and if eight cards, there will of course be nine heaps.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Card Tricks Revealed - Making the pass Trick

This is a necessary beginning for card tricks. “Making the pass” is the technical term for shifting either the top or the bottom card to any place in the pack that you like. It is almost impossible to describe it, and I can only say that it will be learnt better in five minutes from a friend, than in as many hours from a book. As, however, a friend is not always to be found who can perform the pass, I will endeavour to describe it.
The cards are held in both hands, right hand underneath and left above, as in the engraving, where, as the bottom card is to be raised to the top, the little finger is seen between that card and those above it. By a quick movement of the right hand, the bottom card is slipped away towards the left, and is placed upon the top card, under shadow of the left hand, which is raised for the moment to allow of its passage.

This movement must be assiduously practised before it is exhibited in public, as nothing looks more awkward than to see it clumsily performed, in which case two or three cards generally tumble on the floor.

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

How to Ride a Horse for Beginners - Horse Riding Lessons

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.

 “Fleet as the wind, he shoots along the plain,
And knows no check, nor heeds the curbing rein;
His fiery eyeballs, formidably bright,
Dart a fierce glory, and a glowing light;
Proud with excess of life he paws the ground,
Tears up the turf, and spurns the sand around.”—Blacklock.

A boy on horseback is a king on his throne; he feels more than “boy” the moment he gets astride of anything in the shape of a nag. Boys have an instinct for riding, an impulse they cannot resist, like the instinct for eating, breathing or moving.
In his earliest days, in the very “boyhood of being,” “Ride a-cock horse to Banbury Cross” is a ditty of infinite delight, and long before the days of corderoys the equestrian exercise of “Grandfather’s Stick” affords him “joy ineffable.” Then comes the noble game of Hippas, or the wooden “Bucephalus,” on which he feels greater than Alexander; and last, though very little, yet still not least, the “pet Shetland,” which adds to the bliss of being mounted, a positive progressive locomotion, and the “greater than Alexander” is made greater still. Considering, therefore, that all boys love riding, it is for us to tell them how they may “mount the fiery Pegasus,” and ride with elegance and safety,
“To witch the world with noble horsemanship.”
Boys riding ponies

RIDING.

THE HORSE.

The horse is one of the most beautiful and graceful animals in nature, and perhaps the most useful to man, though in this respect it would be difficult to say which of the four or five domesticated quadrupeds bears the palm. During life, the horse and the dog would each contest the point; while in relative value after death, the bullock, sheep, and swine, are fairly entitled to an equal share with them. But there is something very captivating in the appearance of the horse, whether used for the purposes of war, or for racing, or for hunting, or road-work; and in all these several capacities the readers of this book may possibly admire him, though it is chiefly as the riding-horse, or hack, that he usually attracts their notice.

In the animal kingdom, the horse belongs to the division Vertebrata, and class Mammalia, he having a back-bone composed of vertebræ, and his young being suckled. His broad and undivided hoof places him among the ungulata; and lastly, his teeth are as follows, viz. six front teeth, above and below, called “nippers;” two canine in each jaw, called “tusks;” and the remainder, consisting of grinders, having flat surfaces opposed to each other, with rough ridges on them, by which the grass, hay, and corn are rubbed or ground down to a fine pulp, adapted to the stomach. These teeth are moved or rolled on each other by a peculiar action of the muscles of the jaw, so as to aid the process.

THE MARKS OF AGE IN THE HORSE.

By means of the gradual wearing down of the front teeth, or nippers, the age of the horse may be known. Each of the nippers has a hollow in its upper surface, which is very deep and black when the tooth first rises above the gum, and is gradually effaced by the friction caused by the cropping of the grass, or by biting at the manger, or other kinds of rubbing; but as these vary a good deal according to circumstances, so the precise degree of wearing away will also be liable to fluctuations; and the rules laid down only approximate to the truth, without positive accuracy as to a few months.
There are also two sets of teeth; a milk set, which first rise, beginning at once after birth, and a permanent set, which replace the milk-teeth as they fall out. The milk-teeth come up two at a time, but all are up by the end of the first year.
The permanent teeth, also, make their appearance by twos, the first pair showing themselves in the place of the two middle milk-teeth in the third year, and being generally level with the other milk-teeth by the end of the fourth year, by which time the next pair have fallen out, and the permanent teeth have shown themselves in their places.
At five years of age the horse has lost all his nippers, and his corner permanent teeth have nearly completed their growth. The tusks are also above the gums. The centre nippers are now much worn, and the next are becoming slightly so. At six years old the “mark” in the centre nippers is quite gone; at seven years of age this disappears from the next pair, and at eight from the corner nippers; after which, none but a professed judge is likely to make out the age of the horse by an inspection of his mouth; and, indeed, at all times the tyro is liable to be deceived by the frauds of the low horse-dealer, who cuts off the top of the teeth, and then scoops out a hollow with a gouge; after which a hot iron gives the black surface which in the natural state is presented to the eye.
This trick is called “bishoping.”

THE PACES OF THE HORSE.

The natural paces of the horse are the walk, trot, and the gallop; to them are added by man the canter, and sometimes the amble and the run. In the walk, each leg is taken up and put down separately, one after the other, the print of the hind foot in good walkers generally extending a few inches beyond that of the fore foot. The order in which the feet touch the ground is as follows: 1st, the off fore foot; 2d, the near hind foot; 3d, the near fore foot; and 4th, the off hind foot.
 Horse with rider: standing still

Horse with rider: galop

Horse with rider: trot

The gallop consists of a succession of leaps, during a great part of which all the feet are off the ground. As the feet come to the ground they strike it in regular succession; but the exact order will depend upon the lead, which may be either with the off or near fore leg. When in action and the horse is leading with the off fore foot (which if well broken he would do), the off hind and near fore feet touch the ground simultaneously next the near hind foot, and lastly, the off fore foot which he leads with. In the trot, the two legs of opposite sides are moved exactly together, and touch the ground at the same moment; whilst in the amble the two legs of each side move together, and the horse is supported for the instant upon the half of his usual and regular foundation. To counteract this deficiency in the centre of gravity, the body is balanced from side to side in a waddling manner.

TERMS USED BY HORSEMEN.

The left side is called the “near side,” the right the “off.”
Four inches make “a hand.”
The upper part of the horse’s neck is called his “crest;” the bony ridge in front of the saddle the “withers,” the part between the saddle and the tail the “croup;” the bony points, one on each side the bosom, the “shoulder points;” and the line between these and the back of the withers, corresponding with the shoulder blade, is the “line of the shoulder.”
The body between the hip and shoulder line is called the “middle piece.”
In the fore legs, the two divisions are called the “arm” and “cannon;” above which is the “elbow-joint,” and between them the “knee-joint.”
In the hind leg, the two parts are called the “thigh” and “cannon;” and the joints are the “stifle” and “hock.” Below these, in both the hind and fore legs, are the upper and lower “pasterns,” then the “coronet,” or ring between the leg and foot, and lastly, “the hoof.”

FORM OF THE HORSE.

It is a common observation of the horseman that the horse can go in all forms; and this is borne out by the fact, that he does occasionally do so; but nevertheless, it is well known, that among a large number it will be found that those whose form is most in accordance with the shape considered the best by good judges, will turn out the best movers.
In technical language, the horse whose “points” are the best will be the best horse. These points are considered to be: a neat head well set on a lean wiry neck, the latter with a very gentle curve, whose convexity looks upwards (the opposite form to this makes the “ewe neck”); moderately high withers; a sloping shoulder, wide in the blade, which should be well furnished with muscles; strong muscular loins; a croup not too straight nor too drooping, with the tail set on with an elegant sweep; ribs well rounded, and carried back near to the hips, so as to make the horse what is called “well ribbed;” circumference or girth of good dimensions, indicating plenty of “bellows’ room;” thighs and arms muscular; hocks and knees bony and large, without being diseased; cannon bones large and flat, with the suspensory ligament and tendon large, strong, and clearly defined; fetlock joints strong, but not round and inflamed. The eye should be full, clear, and free from specks; and the ears should be moderately small and erect; the feet should be round, and not contracted at the heels, with a well-formed frog.

VARIETIES OF THE HORSE SUITABLE FOR BOYS.

Besides the several kinds of horses suitable for grown people, those for boys are the galloway, the cob, and the pony. The first of[275] these may be considered either a small horse or a large pony, and is usually about fourteen hands high; and though strong and capable of carrying weight, yet of a moderately light and active make. He is so called from the district where he was originally bred in large numbers. The cob is a thick and very strong pony, or galloway, frequently made to look still more so by cutting his tail and mane short, called “hogging” them, thus—

Hogged pony with trimmed tail and mane

Correctly speaking, a pony is understood to be under thirteen hands in height, a galloway between thirteen and fourteen and a half, anything over that a horse.

Many ponies are now bred almost of pure Arabian blood, and they are well suited for lads who have mastered the early difficulties connected with keeping the seat under all ordinary circumstances; but as they are generally very high-spirited, they are scarcely suited for the beginner, and he had better content himself with an animal of more plebeian pedigree and sluggish temperament.

THE ACCOUTREMENTS AND AIDS

Required by the young amateur, are either a pad or saddle, according to his age, together with a bridle and a whip or stick. Spurs are seldom desirable for any but the accomplished rider, as they are apt to irritate the pony if not used with discretion, and it is rather difficult to put an old head upon young shoulders. If the learner is very young, a pad which is made without any tree affords a better hold for the knees than a regular saddle, and will also enable him to ride without stirrups, which feat he will hardly manage on an ordinary smooth saddle. The stirrups are of the following form, but are often, for boys, made much lighter. They ought always to be[276] used with strong stirrup leathers, and these should be attached to the saddle by spring-bars, which release the stirrups in case of the leg being entangled in them after a fall. The groom should always remove the leathers after the ride, and replace them on the opposite side of the saddle, by which means their tendency to hang as shown at (a), is rectified, and they assume the position indicated by the one marked (b), both representing the left, or near, side.
 Stirrups


Bridle

The bridle is either a single or a double-reined one, according to the mouth of the pony ridden. A single-reined bridle is usually a snaffle, it being very improper to allow any one to ride with a curb alone, unless he has very steady and light hands. The snaffle bit is merely a jointed bar of iron (5 5) in the accompanying sketch, but when used alone it has a light cross-bar as well as the ring there shown, in order to prevent the bit being pulled through the mouth.
This, however, in the double-reined bridle is omitted, since it would interfere with the action of the curb. Snaffles are either smooth or twisted, and are made of all sizes, the smallest being only adapted for occasional use, and not for the hands of the learner, who should have a large smooth one.
The curb-bit consists of three parts; the mouthpiece (1), which usually has a bend in it called the port, for the purpose of pressing against the roof of the mouth; secondly, of the cheek-piece (2), which has a ring (3) at the lower end for the attachment of the rein, and another at the upper end for the head-piece of the bridle; and thirdly, the curb-chain (4).
This chain is pressed against the outside of the lower jaw, by the upper arm of the curb used as a lever, and it should be hooked up sufficiently tight to act upon it by pulling the rein, whilst at the same time it should be loose enough to prevent its fretting the jaw.
This delicacy of adjustment requires some little practice, and the young rider should always ask his teacher to show him the proper mode of applying the curb-chain. Sometimes a martingale is needed, in order to keep the pony’s head down, but generally the young rider is better without it, if he will keep his hands well down, and avoid all jerking of the mouth.

MOUNTING.


Boy mounting horse

The rider, even at the earliest age, should first examine the girths and the bridle, and see if they are properly adjusted; for though when leaving home he may be able to depend upon a steady and experienced groom, yet, after putting up at strange stables, he is liable to be led into an accident by careless servants, and therefore it is better to get into the habit of always inspecting these essentials to safety and comfort. If there is an attendant groom, he should hold the rein with his right hand, standing by the off shoulder of the horse, so as with his left hand to hold the stirrup iron for the rider’s right foot as he throws it over the horse’s back. The next thing to be done is for the rider to stand at the shoulder of the pony with his left side towards that part. He then lays hold of the reins with his left hand, drawing them up so short as to feel the mouth, and at the same time twisting a lock of the mane in his fingers so as to steady the hand.
Next, the left foot is placed in the stirrup when the accompanying attitude is presented, exactly as here shown.
At this moment a spring is given from the right foot, the right hand reaches the cantle of the saddle, and the body is raised till the right leg is brought up to the level of the left, when the slightest imaginable pause is made, and then the right leg is thrown over the back of the pony, keeping the toe down and heel elevated, or with the spur on mischief may happen, while the right hand leaves its hold, and the body falls into its position in the centre of the saddle; after which, the right foot has only to be placed in the stirrup to complete the act of mounting.

DISMOUNTING

Boy dismounting

Is exactly the reverse of the last process, and requires, first, the reins to be shortened and held in the left hand with a lock of the mane; secondly, the right leg is taken out of the stirrup, and is thrown over the back of the horse until it is brought down to the level of the other leg. After this, if the pony is of a small size, suitable to that of the rider, the body is gently lowered to the ground, and the left leg is liberated from the stirrup; but if the horse is too high for this, the foot is taken out of the stirrup by raising the body by means of the hands on the pommel and cantle of the saddle, and then the body is lowered to the ground by their assistance.

THE MANAGEMENT OF THE REINS


Proper way to hold single rein
Is of great importance to the comfort of the rider, and also to his appearance, for unless they are held properly, the body is sure to be awkwardly balanced.
When the single rein is used, the best position is to place the middle, ring, and little fingers between the two reins, and then to turn both over the fore-finger, where they are tightly held by the thumb. In all cases the thumb ought to point towards the horse’s ears, by which the elbow is sure to be kept in its place close to the side, and a good command of the reins is insured.
If a double-reined bridle is employed, the middle finger separates the two snaffle reins, and the little one those attached to the curb, all being turned over the fore-finger, and firmly held by the thumb. In both cases the ends of the reins are turned over the left, or near, side of the pony’s shoulder.
When it is intended to turn the horse to the left, it is only necessary to raise the thumb towards the chest of the rider; and on the contrary, when the desire is to turn him to the right, the little finger is turned downwards and backwards towards the fork. In many well-broken ponies the mere moving of the whole hand to the right or left is sufficient, which, by pressing the reins against the neck, indicates the wish of the rider, and is promptly responded to by the handy pony.
This action, however, is objected to by some good horsemen, though, in my opinion, most erroneously, as it is capable of being made highly effective in practice.

Proper way to hold double reins

THE SEAT

Should always be square to the front, without either shoulder being in advance; the loins moderately arched inwards without stiffness; the elbows close to the side, but held easily; the knees placed upon the padded part of the flat in front of the stirrup-leathers; toes turned very slightly outwards, and the foot resting on the stirrup, the inside of which should be opposite the ball of the great toe, and the outside corresponding with the little toe.
In hunting, however, it may be placed “home,” that is, with the stirrup close to the instep. The heel should be well lowered as far as possible beneath the level of the toe, which gives a firm seat. But the great point is to obtain a good grasp of the saddle by the knees, which should be always ready to lay hold like a vice, without however constantly tiring the muscles by such an effort.
The left hand is now to be held very slightly above the pommel of the saddle, and the right easily by the side of it, with the whip held in a slanting position, in which however both hands are much too high above the withers. In order to show the effect of an incorrect mode of holding the reins, the rider has only to place his hands with the knuckles in a horizontal position, and the elbow is sure to be turned out in a most awkward manner.

THE CONTROL OF THE HORSE

Is effected by the reins, heels, voice, and whip, variously used according to his disposition and temper. Some require only the most gentle usage, which in fact is almost always the most efficacious, especially by young people, for whom the horse and dog seem to have an especial affection, and to be always more ready to obey them than might be expected, when their want of strength to enforce their wishes is considered.
The young rider will therefore generally find it to his own interest, as well as that of the noble animal he bestrides, to use his whip and heel as little as possible, and to effect his object solely by his voice and the gentlest pressure of the bit. In this way the most high-couraged horses are kept in order by young lads in the racing stables, and the amateur will do well to follow their example.
It is astonishing how fond horses and dogs are of being talked to by their juvenile masters, and it is right to gratify their love of society by so doing on all occasions.
The reins serve, as already explained, to turn to the right or left, or by drawing tight to stop the horse, and on the contrary, by relaxing them to cause him to proceed, aided if necessary by the voice, heel, or whip.
When it is desired that the right leg should lead in the canter or gallop, the left rein is pulled and the left leg pressed against the flank, by which means the body of the pony is made to present the right side obliquely forwards, and by consequence the right leg leads off.
On the other hand, if it is wished to lead with the left leg, or to change from the right, the right rein is pulled, the right leg pressed to the side, and then the left shoulder looks forwards and the left leg leads off.

MANAGEMENT OF THE WALK.

When it is wished to make the pony walk, he must be quieted down by soothing him with the voice if he has been excited by the gallop or trot; and then, by sitting very quietly in the saddle, and loosing the reins as much as will allow the head to nod in unison with the action of the body and legs, the walk is generally at once fallen into, and there is no farther difficulty except to prevent a stumble.
A tight rein is not desirable in this pace, since it prevents that liberty of action which is required, and leads to a short walk, or very often a jog-trot; and yet there should be such a gentle hold, or preparation for a hold rather, as will suffice to check the mouth in case of a mistake.
This is a very difficult art to acquire, and is only learnt by long practice; but as few ponies fall at this pace, great liberty may generally be allowed to their mouths. Besides this, little is necessary, more than to sit steadily, but not stiffly, in the saddle, and not to sway about more than is sufficient to avoid the appearance of having swallowed a poker.

THE TROT AND CANTER

Are effected by rather different methods, but both require a very steady hand, and a quiet treatment. In order to cause the pony to trot, the reins are taken rather short in the hand, and the mouth is held somewhat firmly, but taking great care not to jerk it.
The animal is then slightly stimulated by the voice, and the body, if necessary, rises from the saddle, as in the trot, so as to indicate what is wanted. This seldom fails to effect the purpose, and the horse at once breaks into a trot; or, if very irritable, he may be compelled to do so by laying hold of an ear and twisting it, to avoid which he drops his head, and trots as a natural consequence.
The canter is also an acquired pace, and for its due performance a curb-bridle is required. In order to make the pony begin this pace, the left rein is pulled, and the rider’s left leg pressed against the side, by which the horse’s right leg is made to lead off, this being the most usual, and certainly the most comfortable “lead” for the rider.
The hands must make a very gentle and steady pull on the curb-rein, and the body generally must be very quiet in the saddle, whilst, at the same time, a very gentle stimulus is given by the voice, which must be repeated at short intervals, or the canter will be changed to a trot, or walk, both of which are preferred to it by most ponies and horses. Young riders should avoid cantering long upon one leg, as it leads to inflammation of the joints, and they should either change the lead or alter the pace to a trot or walk.

Causing the pony to trot

THE MANAGEMENT OF THE GALLOP

Requires little instruction, practice being the main agent in effecting a good seat during this pace. The seat is either close to the saddle, with the body inclining backwards, or standing in the stirrups, in which position the knees and calves only touch the saddle, and the body is bent forwards over the withers.
It should be the endeavour of the rider, while he bends his shoulders forwards, to throw his loins well back, so as to avoid straining the horse’s fore-quarters, by bearing too much weight upon them. This is done by the hold of the knees on the saddle, and by keeping the feet back, also by rounding the loins backwards, and thus throwing the centre of gravity as far as possible behind the stirrup leathers.
The object of standing in the stirrups is to save the horse when at his full gallop, as in racing, or in hunting, when he is going over ploughed ground or up hill. In either of these cases, this attitude allows the horse to exert himself without feeling the weight of the rider impede his movements more than can be avoided.

LEAPING

Is only an extra exertion added to the ordinary spring of the gallop, the attitude being exactly the same. It is best learnt by beginning with small ditches, which the rider is soon able to clear without difficulty. He may next try sheep-hurdles, or very low stiles; but the latter being strong and firmly fixed, are dangerous to the rider, unless the pony is very sure of clearing them.
A leaping-bar, if procurable, should always be adopted in preference to either, as a fall over it is not attended with any bad consequences.
The groom should place it at the lowest notch, and the pony then may be suffered to clear it at a moderate gallop; after which, if the young rider is able to sit pretty closely, he may be indulged with a higher notch, and gradually it may be raised until the limits of the pony’s powers are reached. In riding at a bar, the learner should lay hold of a snaffle-rein in each hand, taking care to keep them close together, by the right rein being held also in the left hand.
The pony is then to be urged to a smart canter or hand gallop, and held straight to the bar in this way, so that he is obliged to leap; or if disliking the act, being urged by the whip down the shoulder, or the spur, or the groom’s voice and whip behind. Young riders, however, should never be put upon a bad or reluctant leaper, but should be taught upon one which is fond of the amusement. At the moment of rising into the air for the leap the reins are relaxed, but should not be left quite loose; while the pony is in the air the body becomes upright, and as he descends it leans well back, until, after a high leap, it almost touches the croup.
During this period the reins should be suffered to remain nearly loose, the hand barely feeling the mouth; but as the pony reaches the ground a stronger hold is taken, in order to guard against a mistake, which might require the aid of the rider to prevent a fall. It is not that he can keep the animal up, but that he checks him, and makes him exert himself in a double degree.
There are various kinds of leaping; as the flying leap, the standing leap, the leap in hand, &c. The flying leap is merely one taken at a fast pace, and when the rider can maintain a good seat in the gallop, it is the easiest of all to sit.
The standing leap is effected from a state of quiescence, and is much more difficult to sit, because the horse rises and falls more suddenly and abruptly.
Between the two is the slow or steady leap, which is only effected safely by the clever hunter or well-broken pony; but when perfect it is almost as smooth as a rocking-horse.
This is the mode in which the young rider should be taught to leap. Leaping in hand is necessary for most ponies in the hunting field, which would otherwise never be able to compete with full-sized hunters in the way they do.
The young hunter, when he meets with a gate or other strong fence, which he knows is too much for the powers of his pony, at once gets off and leads him over by the rein; and when well taught, these little creatures will often tilt themselves over high timber, &c. in a marvellously clever manner, so that I have known them in this way obtain a good place in long and severe runs. If, therefore, my readers are allowed to partake in this exciting sport during their Christmas holidays, they should teach their ponies to leap in hand, or they will be sure to be thrown out.

Pony and rider jumping a fence

TREATMENT OF VICES.

The chief vices which are met with among ponies are—1st, Obstinate Stopping; 2d, Stumbling from Carelessness; 3d, Rearing; 4th, Kicking; 5th, Shying; and 6th, Running Away.

Obstinate stopping

Obstinate Stopping, which in its worst forms is called “jibbing,” is a very troublesome vice, and even in the saddle is sometimes attended with danger, whilst in driving it is so to a dreadful degree.

The rider should never attempt to force his pony forward with the whip or spur, which only aggravates the bad-tempered brute; but should patiently sit quiet in the saddle, and keep his temper, until the pony chooses to move forward again. In this way sometimes very vicious animals are cured when they find that their stable is not the sooner reached by their device; on the other hand, if the whip is used, the pony, especially if of Welsh breed, is very apt to lie down and roll his rider in the dirt, or even sometimes to bolt into a river, or pond, and leave him in danger of his life. My young friends will therefore remember my advice when being mounted upon an obstinate pony, and having lost their tempers, they have proceeded to use their whips, and are bemired or half drowned in consequence.

Stumbling is more a defect of conformation than a vice; but nevertheless, it greatly depends upon a want of spirit to keep up a steady action of the fore legs. It often happens that a pony trots along for a mile or two safely enough; but after going that distance he becomes lazy and careless, and trips with one foot and then with the other, a sure prelude to such a fall as the following, which would be a very bad one, and sufficient to cut both knees to the bone, and to cause serious damage to the rider. The only way to avoid such accidents is to keep the pony at a steady pace, fast enough to keep him alive, but not enough so to tire him. Loose stones and broken ground should be avoided, and a careful hold should be kept upon the mouth, without being so tight as to gag it. When a stumble actually takes place, the body should be well thrown back and the mouth forcibly jerked, so as to make the pony exert himself to keep his legs. An unsafe animal of this kind is, however, wholly unfit for young riders, and they should never be allowed to ride one.
 Stumbling pony with rider

Rearing is a very dangerous vice, and not very common among ponies after they are once broken in. If the rider should, however, be placed upon a rearer, he should be careful to avoid hanging upon the bit when he rises in the air, but on the contrary should loose the reins entirely, and clasp the neck, if the pony should rise very high in the air. The accompanying sketch shows this vice in a very trifling degree, and in such a case the seat thus represented is sufficiently forward to prevent accidents.

Rearing pony

The rider will, however, observe that the reins are quite loose. It often happens that this vice is produced by too tight and severe a curb in a tender mouth, and that upon changing the bit, or letting out the curb chain, the tendency to rise is entirely gone. Whenever, therefore, the young rider finds his pony inclined to rear, let him look well to his bit, and at once drop the curb rein if he has one. If, however, he has only a snaffle, he may rest assured that it is a regular habit, and at once make up his mind either to battle with it or to change his pony.

Kicking pony

Kicking is much more common among ponies than rearing, and very many of these little animals are given to practise it. It is perhaps partly owing to the teasing of their young masters that it is so common; but whatever the cause, there can be no doubt that it is too prevalent among them.
Sometimes it exists as a regular attempt to unhorse the rider, which is a very troublesome habit, and one very difficult to break, because it so often succeeds that the pony is tempted to try again.
When this vice is met with, the rider should do all in his power to keep his pony’s head up, by jerking the bit, and at the same time he should sit well back, with his feet well forwards, with heels down, and trust to his knees in holding on.
When kicking is only the result of high spirits and “freshness,” the best remedy is a smart gallop, which soon stops all these pranks, and makes the most riotous animal quiet.

Shying is also very common among ponies, and in them is often the result of cunning, which leads them to pretend a greater degree of shyness than they really possess. The best mode of treatment is to take as little notice as possible of the shying, but carefully to make the pony pass the object at which he is looking, without regarding how this is effected. The whip should seldom be used at all, and never after the object is passed.

Bolting, or Running Away, is often the result of want of exercise, but sometimes it is a systematic vice. A powerful bit and a steady seat, with good hands, are the best means of grappling with this habit, which is sometimes a very dangerous one. If the pony really runs away, the rider should not pull dead at his mouth, but should relax his hold for a short time, and then take a sharp pull, which is often effectual. A good gallop until he is tired will often cure a runaway for the rest of his life.
There are a variety of bits intended expressly to counteract this vice, such as the Hanoverian Pelham, the curb with a high port, &c.; but nothing is perfectly effectual where there is a determination to run away. A nose-band has lately been invented for the purpose, which answers better than anything hitherto brought out; it consists of a long nose-band which crosses behind the jaw and then hooks on to the bit in the same way as the ordinary curb-chain. When the rein is pulled hard, this nose-band is drawn tight round the jaw, by which the mouth is closed, and the port is pressed strongly against the roof of the mouth, causing a great degree of pain, sufficient to stop most horses. This powerful remedy, which has been named the Bucephalus nose-band, should not lightly be used; but in the case of a runaway horse, or pony, it is the only really efficacious one.


Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.

Fencing the Sport - Rules and Basics of Fencing

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
Fencing is the art of using the small-sword or rapier. The small-sword has a straight blade, about thirty-two inches in length, outside the guard, and is fashioned for thrusting only.
Although it is an art of the greatest antiquity, very great improvements have been made in it during the last half-century, chiefly by French masters, who excel those of all other countries. This has been attributed to various causes; by some to the agility and acknowledged power of rapid physical action possessed by this nation; by others, to their natural vivacity and mental quickness. In my opinion, however, a more direct and powerful cause may be traced in the great encouragement and universal patronage which it has ever received from every grade of a chivalrous and military people.
Every regiment has its maître d’armes, and every barrack its fencing-school. Indeed, in so important a light was the proper teaching of this art held, that one of the French kings (Louis XIV.) granted letters-patent to twenty eminent masters, who alone were permitted to teach in Paris.
When a vacancy occurred, no interest and no favour could enable a candidate to obtain this privilege: he had to fence in public with six of these chosen masters; and if by any of them he was beaten by two distinct hits, he was considered unqualified to teach in the capital.
Independent of its value as the scientific use of the sword,—the gentleman’s weapon of defence, par excellence,—fencing stands unrivalled as an exercise; and it is in this sense that it will now be treated.
The most eminent physicians which this country have produced have all, in the most earnest manner, recommended it to the attention of the young.

Thus, Dr. Clive says:—
“Muscular exertion is essential in perfecting the form of the body, and those exercises which require the exercise of the greatest number of muscles are the most conducive to this end. Fencing causes more muscles to act at the same time than most other exercises. It promotes the expansion of the chest, and improves respiration, whereby the functions of the most important organs of the body are more perfectly performed.”

Sir Anthony Carlisle uses similar language:—

“According to my judgment, the exercise of fencing tends to promote bodily health, and the development of athletic powers. It is likewise apparent, that the attitudes and exertions of fencing are conducive to the manly forms and muscular energies of the human figure.”
Again, Sir Everard Home, in still stronger terms:—

“Of all the different modes in which the body can be exercised, there is none, in my judgment, that is capable of giving strength and velocity, as well as precision, to the action of all the voluntary muscles of the body in an equal degree as the practice of fencing, and none more conducive to bodily health.”

I shall give one more extract from another physician of equal eminence, Dr. Babbington:—

“I am of opinion that, in addition to the amusement which this exercise (fencing) affords, it is particularly calculated to excite in young persons a greater degree of energy and circumspection than they might otherwise possess; and it is obvious that, in respect of health, that mode of exertion is superior to all others, which, while it gives motion and activity to every part of the body, produces at the same time corresponding interest in the mind.”

Sir John Sinclair, Dr. Pemberton, &c., speak in terms equally recommendatory.

To avoid all danger in the lessons and practice, foils are substituted for real swords. Strong wire masks are worn on the face, a well-padded glove on the hand, and the upper part of the body, at which alone the thrusts are aimed, is protected by a strong jacket, the right side and collar of which should be of leather.

The first movement a beginner has to learn is the manner of placing himself in the position called

THE GUARD.

It is from this position that all movements are made, whether offensive or defensive. Let the beginner be placed with his knees straight, his feet at right angles, heel to heel; the right foot, right side, and face directed to the master. The body must be held upright and firm, the arms hanging down by the side, but easily and without constraint; the left hand holding the foil a few inches beneath its guard. Next let him bring the right hand across the body, and seize the foil-handle; by a second movement, bring the foil above the head, the hands separating as they ascend, until both arms be nearly extended upwards and outwards. Here pause. This may be called the first position of the Guard.

These movements should be frequently practised, as they accustom the arms to move independently of the body, flatten the joints of the shoulders, and give prominence to the chest.
Second position

To arrive at the second position of the Guard, the right arm, with the foil, is brought down to the front, until the right elbow is a little above and in advance of the waist; the fore-arm and foil sloping upwards; the point of the foil being the height of the upper part of the face; then, by a second movement, the learner must sink down, separating the knees, and stepping forward with the right foot fourteen or sixteen inches; for, of course, the guard of a tall man will be wider than that of a short one. However, his own comfort in the position will direct him as to the distance; and the general rule is, that the knee of the left leg will jut over the toes of the left foot, and the right leg from ankle to knee be perpendicular. It is in this position that he will receive all attacks from an adversary, and from this position will all his own attacks be made. Also in this position will he

ADVANCE

upon an adversary, when beyond hitting distance. The step in the advance is usually about that of the width of the Guard, although of[201] course this would vary with circumstances. The step is made by advancing the right foot the distance I have named; and on its reaching the ground, the left foot is brought up, and takes its place. To

RETREAT,

the reverse of the above movement is made. The left foot takes the lead, stepping to the rear about as far as the right had stepped to the front; the right occupying its place on its taking up its new position. The next movement,

THE LONGE,

is a very important movement, and is rather difficult to make properly, and fatiguing to practise. Indeed, the first movements in fencing are the most trying to the learner; and he must not be discouraged if he fails to do them correctly at first—practice only will give him this power. The Longe is that extension of body which accompanies every attack, and is thus made: The right arm is extended straight from the shoulder, the arm and blade being on the same level; by a second movement, the right foot is raised from the ground, and a step made forward, about eighteen inches in length, while the left remains firmly planted in its place. At the instant that this step is made, the left hand is allowed to fall within a few inches of the left thigh, and the left knee is stiffened back until the leg is perfectly straight.

Longe

The thigh of the right leg will now be in a position nearly horizontal; from the knee downwards, perpendicular. Having executed the Longe, the next movement to be made is

THE RECOVER;

that is, to return from the position of the Longe to that of the Guard, and is thus effected: The left arm is nimbly thrown up to its place, the right arm drawn in, and the left knee re-bent. These movements must be made at the same time, as it is their united action that enables a person to recover from so extended a position as the Longe quick enough to avoid a thrust if his own attack has failed.

These movements must be frequently practised before any others are attempted—the Guard, the Advance, the Retreat, the Longe, and the Recover; and when the learner has attained some proficiency in them, he may begin the more delicate movements of attack and defence. Of these I will now speak.

THE ENGAGE.

It is customary for adversaries, on coming to the Guard, to Engage, or to join blades, on what is called the inside, that is, the right side; although there are occasions on which it is advisable to engage on the outside, or on the left; otherwise called the Quarte or Tierce sides.

Two men thus opposed to each other will at once perceive that there are two lines of attack open to them, i. e. the line inside and the line outside the blade—these, and no more. But these may be, and in fencing are, subdivided into inside above the hand, and inside under the hand, and the same subdivision for outside. This gives four lines of attack—or, to speak more simply, gives four openings through which an adversary may be assailed. Now, to protect each of these assailable points, are four defensive movements, called

PARADES.

Each opening has its own parade or defence, and each parade will guard its own opening, and, strictly speaking, no other. The opening inside above the hand is defended by two parades.

Prime

As its name imports, the first and most natural parade is that of Prime. The action of drawing the sword from its sheath is almost exactly the movement made use of in the parade of Prime.

In this parade, the hand is raised as high as the forehead, so that the fencer can see his opponent’s face under his wrist. The blade of the foil is almost horizontal, but the point is rather lowered towards the ground. As this parade will throw the right side of the body open to the adversary’s sword, it is good play to disengage from left to right, and deliver a rapid thrust at the adversary, in order to anticipate him before he can bring his own sword round for another thrust. His point will be thrown far out of line, so that he is behind-hand in point of time.
This is a very useful parade for fencers of short stature, as they can sometimes get in their blade under their adversary’s arm, after they have parried his thrust.
The other parade is that of

QUARTE.

It is thus formed. On the approach of the point of an adversary’s blade (and how these approaches are made I will presently explain), the right hand is moved a few inches—three or four will be enough—across the body on the inside; the hand being neither depressed nor raised, and the foil being kept on the same slope as in the Guard. This guards the body on the inside above the hand, but (and here comes an important law in fencing) the very movement which has guarded the body on one side has exposed it on the other: this is the case with all the simple parades.

Quarte

Suppose, now, that the exposed part outside above the hand were assailed, then the defence for it is the parade of

TIERCE.

It is formed by turning the hand with the nails downwards, and[204] crossing to the opposite side some six or eight inches; the hand and point at the same elevation as before: this will guard this opening. If, however, the attack had been made under instead of over the hand, then the proper parade would have been

Seconde.

There is another method of parrying, called Quarte, over the arm, which is executed by making almost the same parade as in Tierce, with this exception—first, the hand is retained in its original position, with the nails upwards; and, secondly, the point is not raised above the eye of the adversary.

Quarte

It is rather more delicate than tierce, but wants its power and energy. The Ripostes, or reply thrusts, are made, as they would have been had the parade been that of Tierce.

SECONDE


is formed by turning the hand in the same position in which it was turned for Tierce, but the point of the foil slopes as much downwards as in Tierce it did upwards; the direction and distance for the hand to traverse being the same. Again, had the attack been delivered at none of these, but at the inside under the hand, then the proper parade would have been

DEMI-CERCLE,


Demi-cercle

which, as its name expresses, is a half-circle, described by a sweep of the blade traversing the under line. Next comes the parade of

OCTAVE.

In this parade the hand is held as in Quarte; the hilt of the foil is kept lower than that of the opponent; the blade is almost horizontal, the point being only slightly lower than the hilt, and directed towards the body of the adversary.

Octave

Octave is extremely useful when the fencer misses his parade of Demi-cercle, as there is but a short distance for the point to traverse, and it generally meets the blade of the adversary before the point can be properly fixed. Moreover, it brings the point so near the adversary’s body, that he will not venture to make another thrust until he has removed the foil.

Thus I have enumerated, and partly explained, the forms and uses of these four parades: they are called Simple Parades, to distinguish them from another set of defensive movements, called

CONTRE-PARADES.

I have said and shown that a man standing foil in hand, in the position of the guard, is exposed in four distinct places to thrusts from an adversary within longing distance. I have also shown that he has a defence for each of these exposed places; but if a man has but one defence for each assailable part, then his adversary, knowing beforehand what the defence must be, would be prepared beforehand to deceive him. But if he has a reserve—if he has a second defence for each part, then the adversary cannot tell what the defence will be, until his attack, false or real, is begun.

To meet this contingency, a second series of defences have been devised, which are of an entirely different nature from the Simple Parades.
Again, as each of the simple parades is framed to guard only one opening, it was found desirable that the contre-parades should be of a more comprehensive character. They are therefore devised so that each is capable of protecting the entire front. It is evident that this object could not be attained without the sacrifice of quickness, because a larger space must be traversed, and therefore more time is occupied with a contre than a simple parade.

To know one contre-parade is virtually to know all, as they are all formed on the same plan. They are all full circles in the position of hand and direction of foil of the different simple parades; or more clearly speaking, each simple parade has a contre-parade; there are, therefore, four simple and four contre-parades, which may be thus arranged:—
Quarte     Contre de Quarte.
Tierce     Contre de Tierce.
Seconde     Contre de Seconde.
Demi-cercle     Contre de Cercle.

I have said that a contre-parade is a full circle in the position of hand and direction of blade of its simple; thus, contre de quarte is made by retaining the hand in the position of quarte, while the foil describes a circle descending on the inside, and returning by the outside to the place of its departure. So with all the others, the foil following the direction of the simple parade, of which it is the contre. These complete the entire system of defences.

I now come to movements of an opposite nature, namely, the

ATTACKS,

and shall begin with the most simple of them. I will again suppose two adversaries standing, en guard, within longing distance of each other: now the most simple movement that the attacking party could make would be,

THE STRAIGHT THRUST

to the outside or inside, according to his line of engagement. I have, in describing the longe, in effect described the straight thrust; it is but a longe in a straight line, taking care, however, to feel firmly the adversary’s blade, but taking care also not to press or lean on it during the delivering of the thrust.

Next in character comes

THE DISENGAGEMENT.

This attack is made by dropping the point of the foil beneath the adversary’s blade, and raising it on the opposite side, at the same time, rising with the arm fully extended; on the completion of the extension the longe is made and the thrust delivered.

THE ONE-TWO

is but a double disengagement, the first being but a feint or false attack, to induce the adversary to form a parade to cover the part threatened, for the covering of one part of the body exposes the opposite: the second disengagement is made to take advantage of this exposure. The arm is extended halfway on the first, and then wholly on the second, to be immediately followed by the longe.

THE BEAT AND THRUST.

This is another variety of attack. Supposing the adversary’s blade to be firmly joined to yours, when you wished to deliver a straight thrust, there would then be danger of your falling upon his point. This danger is avoided by giving a slight beat on his blade the instant preceding your extension of arm, of course to be followed en suite by the longe.

The companion attack to this attack is

THE BEAT AND DISENGAGEMENT.

The beat here takes the character of the first disengagement in one-two, i. e. becomes a feint, and is intended to induce the adversary to return to the place he occupied when the beat was made. You then immediately pass to the opposite side of his blade in the manner described in the disengagement.

It will be seen that all these movements pass under the adversary’s blade. However, there are certain situations in the assault, as a fencing bout is called, when an adversary is more assailable over the point than under the blade; for this purpose there is what the French call the coupé sur point, or

CUT OVER THE POINT.

It is thus made: By the action of the hand, and without drawing it back at all, the foil is raised and brought down on the opposite side of the adversary’s blade, the arm being extended during its fall to the horizontal position, on attaining which the longe is delivered.

CUT OVER AND DISENGAGEMENT

is on the same principle as the one-two and the beat and disengagement. On the adversary opposing the first movement (the cut) with a parade, the second movement (the disengagement) is made to the opposite side, to be followed of course by the longe; the extension of the arm being divided between the two movements.

These attacks are called simple attacks, because they may be parried by one or more simple parades, according to the number of movements in the attack. In fact, every attack can be parried, and every parade can be deceived: it is the additional movement last made which hits or guards.

Thus, you threaten by a disengagement to the outside; your adversary bars your way effectually by the parade of tierce; you make a second disengagement to the inside, which is now exposed from the very fact of the outside being guarded (for both lines of attack cannot be guarded at the same time), thus converting your attack into one-two; but if your adversary parries quarte on your second movement, your attack would be warded off. This can be carried much further, but the above will, I think, be sufficient to explain the nature of simple parades and attacks.

To deceive a contre-parade, a separate movement, called a doublé, or

DOUBLE,

has been invented; it is very simple in principle, and admirably answers the purpose. For instance, if you were to threaten your adversary by a disengagement to the outside, and if, instead of tierce, he parried contre de quarte, the double is then made by your making a second disengagement to the same side as the first, for it will be found that his contre de quarte has replaced the blades in the positions they occupied previous to your disengagement. You will then have an opening, and may finish the attack by the longe.

As all the contre-parades are on the same plan and principle, so are all the doubles. Of course, it is understood that you will make all the movements of the double en suite, and without allowing your adversary’s blade to overtake yours.

ALL FEINTS.

The foregoing movements having been well practised in the lesson, the next step is that of all feints and all parades, and may be practised either with a master or fellow-pupil. The practice consists of one pupil standing on the defensive entirely, while another assumes the offensive, and attacks him with all the feints of which he is master, the other, of course, defending with all his parades. It is excellent practice, as it accustoms the pupil to think for himself gradually, he having thus but one set of movements to think about. He is therefore enabled to make them boldly, without having to encounter unknown movements from his adversary.

It also enables him to see the extent of his resources, both for attack and defence. When he can both attack and defend with some presence of mind, he may then begin

THE ASSAULT;

that is, he may encounter an adversary, to attack or defend as occasion presents. He is then left to his own resources entirely. The following

GENERAL ADVICE,


given by a very eminent fencer and excellent teacher, cannot fail to be of use:—

“Do not put yourself on the position of the guard within the reach of your adversary’s thrust, especially at the time of drawing your sword.

“If you are much inferior make no long assaults.

“Do nothing that is useless; every movement should tend to your advantage.

“Let your movements be made as much within the line of your adversary’s body as possible.

“Endeavour both to discover your adversary’s designs, and to conceal your own.

“Two skilful men, acting together, fight more with their heads than their hands.

“The smaller you can make the movements with your foil, the quicker will your point arrive at your adversary’s body.

“Do not endeavour to give many thrusts on the longe, thus running the risk of receiving one in the interim.

“If your adversary drops his foil by accident, or in consequence of a smart parade of yours, you should immediately pick it up, and present it to him politely.

“Always join blades (if possible) previously to another attack, after a hit is given.”

Excerpt from the book:
EVERY BOY’S BOOK: A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPÆDIA OF SPORTS AND AMUSEMENTS.
EDITED BY EDMUND ROUTLEDGE.
With more than Six Hundred Illustrations
FROM ORIGINAL DESIGNS.
LONDON: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONS,
THE BROADWAY, LUDGATE.
NEW YORK: 416, BROOME STREET.
1869.