Wondergraph - How to Make a Wondergraph

An exceedingly interesting machine is the so-called wondergraph. It is easy and cheap to make and will furnish both entertainment and instruction for young and old. It is a drawing machine, and the variety of designs it will produce, all symmetrical and ornamental and some wonderfully complicated, is almost without limit. Fig. 1 represents diagrammatically the machine shown in the sketch. This is the easiest to make and gives fully as great a variety of results as any other.

To a piece of wide board or a discarded box bottom, three grooved circular disks are fastened with screws so as to revolve freely about the centers. They may be sawed from pieces of thin board or, better still, three of the plaques so generally used in burnt-. wood work may be bought for about 15 cents. Use the largest one for the revolving table T. G is the guide wheel and D the driver with attached handle. Secure a piece of a 36-in. ruler, which can be obtained from any furniture dealer, and nail a small block, about 1 in. thick, to one end and drill a hole through both the ruler and the block, and pivot them by means of a wooden peg to the face of the guide wheel. A fountain pen, or pencil, is placed at P and held securely by rubber bands in a grooved block attached to the ruler.

An Easily Made Wondergraph

A strip of wood, MN, is fastened to one end of the board. This strip is made just high enough to keep the ruler parallel with the face of the table, and a row of small nails are driven part way into its upper edge. Anyone of these nails may be used to hold the other end of the ruler in position, as shown in the sketch. If the wheels are not true, a belt tightener, B, may be attached and held against the belt by a spring or rubber band.

After the apparatus is adjusted so it will run smoothly, fasten a piece of drawing paper to the table with a couple of thumb tacks, adjust the pen so that it rests lightly on the paper and turn the drive wheel. The results will be surprising and delightful. The accompanying designs were made with a very crude combination of pulleys and belts, such as described.

The machine should have a speed that will cause the pen to move over the paper at the same rate as in ordinary writing. The ink should flow freely from the pen as it passes over the paper. A very fine pen may be necessary to prevent the lines from running together.

The dimensions of the wondergraph may vary. The larger designs in the illustration were made on a table, 8 in. in diameter, which was driven by a guide wheel, 6 in. in diameter. The size of the driver has no effect on the form or dimensions of the design, but a change in almost any other part of the machine has a marked effect on the results obtained. If the penholder is made so that it may be fastened at various positions along the ruler, and the guide wheel has holes drilled through it at different distances from the center to hold the peg attaching the ruler, these two adjustments, together with the one for changing the other end of the ruler by the rows of nails, will make a very great number of combinations possible.

Diagrams Showing Construction of Wonder graphs

Even a slight change will greatly modify a figure or give an entirely new one. Designs may be changed by simply twisting the belt, thus reversing the direction of the table.
If an arm be fastened to the ruler at right angles to it, containing three or four grooves to hold the pen, still different figures will be obtained. A novel effect is made by fastening two pens to this arm at the same time, one filled with red ink and the other with black ink. The designs will be quite dissimilar and may be one traced over the other or one within the other according to the relative position of the pens.

Again change the size of the guide wheel and note the effect. If the diameter of the table is a multiple of that of the guide wheel, a complete figure of few lobes will result as shown by the one design in the lower right hand corner of the illustration. With a very flexible belt tightener an elliptical guide wheel may be used. The axis may be taken at one of the foci or at the intersection of the axis of the ellipse.

The most complicated adjustment is to mount the table on the face of another disc, table and disc revolving in opposite directions. It will go through a long series of changes without completing any figure and then will repeat itself. The diameters may be made to vary from the fraction of an inch to as large a diameter as the size of the table permits. The designs given here were originally traced on drawing paper 6 in. square.

Remarkable and complex as are the curves produced in this manner, yet they are but the results obtained by combining simultaneously two simple motions as may be shown in the following manner: Hold the table stationary and the pen will trace an oval. But if the guide wheel is secured in a fixed position and the table is revolved a circle will be the result.

So much for the machine shown in Fig. 1. The number of the modifications of this simple contrivance is limited only by the ingenuity of the maker. Fig. 2 speaks for itself. One end of the ruler is fastened in such a way as to have a to-and-fro motion over the arc of a circle and the speed of the table is geared down by the addition of another wheel with a small pulley attached.

Specimen Scrolls Made on the Wondergraph

This will give many new designs. In Fig. 3 the end of the ruler is held by a rubber band against the edge of a thin triangular piece of wood which is attached to the face of the fourth wheel. By substituting other plain figures for the triangle, or outlining them with small finishing nails, many curious modifications such as are shown by the two smallest designs in the illustrations may be obtained. It is necessary, if symmetrical designs are to be made, that the fourth wheel and the guide wheel have the same diameter.

In Fig. 4, V and W are vertical wheels which may be successfully connected with the double horizontal drive wheel if the pulley between the two has a wide flange and is set at the proper angle. A long strip of paper is given a uniform rectilinear motion as the string attached to it is wound around the axle, V. The pen, P, has a motion compounded of two simultaneous motions at right angles to each other given by the two guide wheels. Designs such as shown as a border at the top and bottom of the illustration are obtained in this way. If the vertical wheels are disconnected and the paper fastened in place the well known Lissajou's curves are obtained. These curves may be traced by various methods, but this arrangement is about the simplest of them all. The design in this case will change as the ratio of the diameters of the two guide wheels are changed.

These are only a few of the many adjustments that are possible. Frequently some new device will give a figure which is apparently like one obtained in some other way, yet, if you will watch the way in which the two are commenced and developed into the complete design you will find they are formed quite differently.

The average boy will take delight in making a wondergraph and in inventing the many improvements that are sure to suggest themselves to him. At all events it will not be time thrown away, for, simple as the contrivance is, it will arouse latent energies which may develop along more useful lines in maturer years.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Flying Toy

A wing is made in the shape shown in Fig. 1 by cutting it from the large piece of an old tin can, after melting the solder and removing the ends.
This wing is then given a twist so that one end will be just opposite the other and appear as shown in Fig. 2.
Secure a common spool and drive two nails in one end, leaving at least 1/2 in. of each nail projecting after the head has been removed.
Two holes are made in the wing, exactly central, to fit on these two nails.
Another nail is driven part way into the end of a stick, Fig. 4, and the remaining part is cut off so the length will be that of the spool.
A string is used around the spool in the same manner as on a top.
The wing is placed on the two nails in the spool, and the spool placed on the nail in the stick, Fig. 5, and the flier is ready for action. A quick pull on the string will cause the wing to leave the nails and soar upward for a hundred feet or more. After a little experience in twisting the wing the operator will learn the proper shape to get the best results.

Homemade Flying Machine

Be very careful in making the tests before the wings are turned to the proper shape, as the direction of the flier cannot be controlled and some one might be injured by its flight.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

Homemade Catamaran - How to Make a Cruising Catamaran

A launch is much safer than a sailing boat, yet there is not the real sport to be derived from it as in sailing. Herein is given a description of a sailing catamaran especially adapted for those who desire to sail and have a safe craft. The main part of the craft is made from two boats or pontoons with watertight tops, bottoms and sides and fixed at a certain distance apart with a platform on top for the passengers. Such a craft cannot be capsized easily, and, as the pontoons are watertight, it will weather almost any rough water. If the craft is intended for rough waters, care must be taken to make the platform pliable yet stiff and as narrow as convenient to take care of the rocking movements.

This catamaran has been designed to simplify the construction, and, if a larger size than the dimensions shown in Fig. 1 is desired, the pontoons may be made longer by using two boards end to end and putting battens on the inside over the joint. Each pontoon is made of two boards 1 in. thick, 14 in. wide and 16 ft. long, dressed and cut to the shape shown in Fig. 2. Spreaders are cut from 2-in. planks, 10 in. wide and 12 in. long, and placed 6 ft. apart between the board sides and fastened with screws. White lead should be put in the joints before turning in the screws. Cut the ends of the boards so they will fit perfectly and make pointed ends to the pontoons as shown in Fig. 3, and fit in a wedge shaped piece; white lead the joints and fasten well with screws.

Details of the Pontoons

Turn this shell upside down and lay a board 1/2 in. thick, 12 in. wide and 16 ft. long on the edges of the sides, mark on the under side the outside line of the shell and cut to shape roughly. See that the spreaders and sides fit true all over, then put white lead on the joint and nail with 1-3/4 -in. finishing nails as close as possible without weakening the wood. Slightly stagger the nails in the sides, the 1-in. side boards will allow for this, trim off the sides, turn the box over and paint the joints and ends of the spreaders, giving them two or three coats and let them dry.

Completed Boat

Try each compartment for leaks by turning water in them one at a time. Bore a 5/8-in. hole through each spreader in the center and through the bottom board as shown. The top board, which is 1/4-in. thick, 12 in. wide and 16 ft. long, is put on the same as the bottom.

Crosspiece and Rudder Details

After finishing both pontoons in this way place them parallel. A block of wood is fastened on top of each pontoon and exactly over each spreader on which to bolt the crosspieces as shown in Fig. 4. Each block is cut to the shape and with the dimensions shown in Fig. 5.

The crosspieces are made from hickory or ash and each piece is 2-1/2 in. thick, 5 in. wide and 6-1/2 ft. long. Bore a 5/8-in. hole 3 in. from each end through the 5-in. way of the wood. Take maple flooring 3/4 in. thick, 6 in. wide, 74-1/2 in. long and fasten with large screws and washers to the crosspieces and put battens across every 18 in. Turn the flooring and crosspieces upside down and fasten to the pontoons with long 5/8-in. bolts put through the spreaders. Put a washer on the head of each bolt and run them through from the under side. Place a thick rubber washer under and on top of each crosspiece at the ends as shown in Fig. 4. This will make a rigid yet flexible joint for rough waters. The flooring being placed on the under side of the crosspieces makes it possible to get the sail boom very low. The sides put on and well fastened will greatly assist in stiffening the platform and help it to stand the racking strains. These sides will also keep the water and spray out and much more so if a 12-in. dash is put on in front on top of the crosspiece.

The rudders are made as shown in Fig. 6, by using an iron rod 5/8 in. in diameter and 2 ft. long for the bearing of each. This rod is split with a hacksaw for 7 in. of its length and a sheet metal plate 3/32 in. thick, 6 in. wide, and 12 in. long inserted and riveted in the split. This will allow 3/4 in. of the iron rod to project from the bottom edge of the metal through which a hole is drilled for a cotter pin. The bottom bracket is made from stake iron bent in the shape of a U as shown, the rudder bearing passing through a hole drilled in the upper leg and resting on the lower. Slip the top bracket on and then bend the top end of the bearing rod at an angle as shown in both Figs. 6 and 7. Connect the two bent ends with a crosspiece which has a hole drilled in its center to fasten a rope as shown in Fig. 1.

Attach the mast to the front crosspiece, also bowsprit, bracing them both to the pontoons. A set of sails having about 300 sq. ft. of area will be about right for racing. Two sails, main and fore, of about 175 to 200 sq. ft. will be sufficient for cruising.

—Contributed by J. Appleton, Des Moines, Iowa.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make an Easel

A strong and substantial easel may be made at home with very little expense and no great difficulty.
Smooth down with a plane, four pieces of pine, 1 in. thick, 4 in. wide and 4 ft. long, until suitable for legs. Make three cross-pieces, Fig. 1, and join the legs with them as shown in Fig. 2. With an auger bore a hole in each leg about 3 in. from the bottom, and fit into each a little peg, Fig. 2, for the picture to rest on. The peg should be of hardwood so it will not break.
Cut the handle from an old broom, measure off the right length, and put a hinge on one end. Fasten this leg on the second cross-piece, thus forming a support for the two front legs, Fig. 3. The easel may be finished according to the individual taste. It may be sandpapered and stained and varnished, or painted in some pretty tint, or, if preferred, may be enameled.

Details of Easel Construction

—Contributed by G. J. Tress.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes

A windmill for developing from 1/2 to 2 hp. may be constructed at home, the expense being very small and the results highly satisfactory.
The hub for the revolving fan wheel is first constructed.
One good way to get both the hub, lining, shaft and spokes for the blades, is to go to a wheelwright's and purchase the wheel and axle of some old rig. There are always a number of discarded carriages, wagons or parts thereof in the rear of the average blacksmith's shop. Sometimes for half a dollar, and often for nothing, you can get a wheel, an axle, and connected parts.
Remove from the wheel, all but the four spokes needed for the fans as in Fig. 1. The same hub, axle and bearings will do. In case you cannot secure a wheel and shaft, the hub may be made from a piece of hardwood, about 4 in. in diameter and 6 in. long. A 2-in. hole should be bored through for a wooden shaft, or a 1-1/2-in. hole for a metal shaft.

Fig.1; Windmill
The hub may be secured by putting two or three metal pins through hub and shaft.
Adjust the spokes by boring holes for them and arrange them so that they extend from the center A, like B. The wheel is then ready for the blades. These blades should be of sheet metal or thin hardwood. The sizes may vary according to the capacity of the wheel and amount of room for the blades on the spokes. Each one is tilted so as to receive the force of the wind at an angle, which adjustment causes the wheel to revolve when the wind pressure is strong enough. Secure the blades to the spokes by using little metal cleats, C and D. Bend these metal strips to suit the form of the spokes and flatten against the blades and then insert the screws to fasten the cleats to the wood. If sheet metal blades are used, rivets should be used for fastening them.

Fig. 2, Fig. 3

The stand for the wheel shaft is shown in Fig. 2. Arrange the base piece in platform order, (J). This is more fully shown in Fig. 5. On top of this base piece, which is about 36 in. long, place the seat or ring for the revolving table. The circular seat is indicated at I, Fig. 1. This ring is like an inverted cheese box cover with the center cut out. It can be made by a tinner. Size of ring outside, 35 in. The shoulders are 4 in. high and made of tin also. Form the shoulder by soldering the piece on. Thus we get a smooth surface with sides for the mill base to turn in so as to receive the wind at each point to advantage. The X-shaped piece H rests in the tin rim. The X-form, however, does not show in this sketch, but in Fig. 5, where it is marked S. This part is made of two pieces of 2-in. plank, about 3 in. wide, arranged so that the two pieces cross to make a letter X.

Fig. 4

When the pieces join, mortise them one into the other so as to secure a good joint. Adjust the uprights for sustaining the wheel shaft to the X-pieces as shown at E, E, Fig. 2. These are 4 by 4 in. pieces of wood, hard pine preferred, planed and securely set up in the X-pieces by mortising into the same. Make the bearings for the wheel shaft in the uprights and insert the shaft.

Fig. 5

The gearing for the transmission of the power from the wheel shaft to the shaft calculated for the delivery of the power at an accessible point below must next be adjusted. The windmill is intended for installation on top of a building, and the power may be transmitted below, or to the top of a stand specially erected for the purpose. It is a good plan to visit some of the second-hand machinery dealers and get four gears, a pulley and a shaft. Gears about 5 in. in diameter and beveled will be required. Adjust the first pair of the beveled gears as at F and G. If the wheel shaft is metal, the gear may be set-screwed to the shaft, or keyed to it. If the shaft is hardwood, it will be necessary to arrange for a special connection. The shaft may be wrapped with sheet metal and this metal fastened on with screws. Then the gear may be attached by passing a pin through the set-screw hole and through the shaft. The upright shaft like the wheel shaft is best when of metal. This shaft is shown extending from the gear, G, to a point below. The object is to have the shaft reach to the point where the power is received for the service below. The shaft is shown cut off at K. Passing to Fig. 3 the shaft is again taken up at L. It now passes through the arrangement shown, which device is rigged up to hold the shaft and delivery wheel P in place. This shaft should also be metal. Secure the beveled gears M and N as shown. These transmit the power from the upright shaft to the lower horizontal shaft. Provide the wheel or pulley, P, with the necessary belt to carry the power from this shaft to the point of use.

The tail board of the windmill is illustrated in Fig. 4. A good way to make this board is to use a section of thin lumber and attach it to the rear upright, E of Fig. 2. This may be done by boring a hole in the upright and inserting the shaft of the tail-piece. In Fig. 4 is also shown the process of fastening a gear, R, to the shaft. The set screws enter the hub from the two sides and the points are pressed upon the shaft, thus holding the gear firmly in place.

Fig. 6

The platform for the entire wheel device is shown in Fig. 5. The X-piece S is bored through in the middle and the upright shaft passes through. The tin run-way or ring is marked T, and the X-piece very readily revolves in this ring, whenever the wind alters and causes the wheel's position to change. The ring and ring base are secured to the platform, U. The latter is made of boards nailed to the timbers of the staging for supporting the mill. This staging is shown in Fig. 6, in a sectional view. The ring with its X-piece is marked V, the X-piece is marked W, and the base for the part, and the top of the stage is marked X. The stage is made of 2 by 4-in. stock. The height may vary, according to the requirements. If the affair is set up on a barn or shed, the staging will be sufficient to support the device. But if the stage is constructed direct from the ground, it will be necessary to use some long timbers to get the wheel up high enough to receive the benefit of the force of the wind. Proceeding on the plan of the derrick stand, as shown in Fig. 6, a stage of considerable height can be obtained.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Remove a Tight Ring From a Finger With String

When a ring cannot be removed easily from the finger, take a string or thread and draw one end through between the ring and the flesh.
Coil the other end of the string around the finger covering the part from the ring to and over the finger joint.
Uncoil the string by taking the end placed through the ring and at the same time keep the ring close up to the string.
In this way the ring can be easily slipped over the knuckle and off from the finger.

Wrapping the Finger

—Contributed by J. K. Miller, Matietta, Penn.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How To Build An Ice Boat - Ice Boat Plans

The ice boat is each year becoming more popular. Anyone with even small experience in using tools can construct such a craft, and the pleasure many times repays the effort.
 A Four-Runner Ice Yacht

Take two pieces of wood 2 by 6 in., one 6 ft. and the other 8 ft. long. At each end of the 6-ft. piece and at right angles to it, bolt a piece of hardwood 2 by 4 by 12 in. Round off the lower edge of each piece to fit an old skate. Have a blacksmith bore holes through the top of the skates and screw one of them to each of the pieces of hardwood.

Plan of Ice Boat

These skates must be exactly parallel or there will be trouble the first time the craft is used.

Over the middle of the 6-ft. piece and at right angles to it, bolt the 8-ft. plank, leaving 1 ft. projecting as in Fig. 1.

The rudder skate is fastened to a piece of hardwood 2 by 2 by 12 in. as the runners were fastened. This piece should be mortised 3 by 3 by 4 in. in the top before the skate is put on. Figure 2 shows the rudder post.

A piece of hardwood 1 by 6 by 6 in.

Details of Ice Boat Construction

should be screwed to the under side of the 8-ft. plank at the end with the grain running crosswise. Through this bore a hole 1-1/2-in. in diameter in order that the rudder post may fit nicely. The tiller, Fig. 3, should be of hardwood, and about 8 in. long.

To the under side of the 8-ft. plank bolt a piece of timber 2 by 4 by 22 in. in front of the rudder block, and to this cross piece and the 6-ft. plank nail 8-in. boards to make the platform.

The spar should be 9 ft. long and 2-1/2 in. in diameter at the base, tapering to 1-1/2 in. at the top. This fits in the square hole, Fig. 1. The horn should be 5-1/2 ft. long, 2 by 3 in. at the butt and 1 in. at the end.

Figure 4 gives the shape and dimensions of the mainsail which can be made of muslin. Run the seam on a machine, put a stout cord in the hem and make loops at the corners.

Figure 6 shows the way of rigging the gaff to the spar. Figure 7 shows the method of crotching the main boom and Fig. 8 a reef point knot, which may come in handy in heavy winds.

Make your runners as long as possible, and if a blacksmith will make an iron or steel runner for you, so much the better will be your boat.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Turbine Engine - Easy Science Projects

In the following article is described a machine which anyone can make, and which will be very interesting, as well as useful. It can be made without the use of a lathe, or other tools usually out of reach of the amateur mechanic. It is neat and efficient, and a model for speed and power. Babbitt metal is the material used in its construction, being cast in wooden molds. The casing for the wheel is cast in halves—a fact which must be kept in mind.

First, procure a planed pine board 1 by 12 in. by 12 ft. long. Cut off six pieces 12 in. square, and, with a compass saw, cut out one piece as shown in Fig. 1, following the dotted lines, leaving the lug a, and the projections B and b to be cut out with a pocket knife. Make the lug 1/4 in. deep, and the projections B, b, 1/2 in. deep. The entire cut should be slightly beveled.

Fig. 2

Now take another piece of wood, and cut out a wheel, as shown in Fig. 2. This also should be slightly beveled. When it is finished, place it on one of the square pieces of wood, with the largest side down, then place the square piece out of which Fig. 1 was cut, around the wheel, with the open side down. (We shall call that side of a mold out of which a casting is drawn, the "open" side.) Place it so that it is even at the edge with the under square piece and place the wheel so that the space between the wheel and the other piece of wood is an even 1/8 in. all the way around. Then nail the wheel down firmly, and tack the other piece slightly.

Fig. 1

Procure a thin board 1/4 in. thick, and cut it out as shown in Fig. 3; then nail it, with pins or small nails, on the center of one of the square pieces of wood. Fit this to the two pieces just finished, with the thin wheel down—but first boring a 3/4-in. hole 1/4 in. deep, in the center of it; and boring a 3/8-in.

Fig. 3

hole entirely through at the same place. Now put mold No.1 (for that is what we shall call this mold) in a vise, and bore six 1/4-in. holes through it. Be careful to keep these holes well out in the solid part, as shown by the black dots in Fig. 1. Take the mold apart, and clean all the shavings out of it; then bolt it together, and lay it away to dry.

Fig. 4

Now take another of the 12-in. square pieces of wood, and cut it out as shown in Fig. 4, slightly beveled. After it is finished, place it between two of the 12-in. square pieces of wood, one of which should have a 3/8-in. hole bored through its center. Then bolt together with six 1/4-in. bolts, as shown by the black dots in Fig. 4, and lay it away to dry. This is mold No.2. Now take mold No.1; see that the bolts are all tight; lay it on a level place, and pour babbitt metal into it, until it is full. Let it stand for half an hour, then loosen the bolts and remove the casting.

Fig. 5

Now cut out one of the 12-in.-square pieces of wood as shown in Fig. 5. This is the same as Fig. 1, only the one is left-handed, the other right-handed. Put this together in mold No.1, instead of the right-handed piece; and run in babbitt metal again. The casting thus made will face together with the casting previously made.

Pour metal into mold No.2. This will cast a paddle-wheel, which is intended to turn inside of the casting already made.

If there should happen to be any holes or spots, where the casting did not fill out, fill them by placing a small piece of wood with a hole in it, over the defective part, and pouring metal in to fill it up.

Fig. 6

If you cannot obtain the use of a drill press, take an ordinary brace, fasten a 3/8-in. drill in it, and bore a hole through the end of a strip about 2 in. wide and 16 in. long; put the top of the brace through this hole, and fasten the other end of the strip to a bench, as shown in illustration. Find the center of the paddle-wheel, place it under the drill, true it up with a square; and drill it entirely through. Find the centers of the insides of the other two castings, and drill them in the same manner.

A piece of mild steel 5 in. long, and 3/8-in. in diameter must now be obtained. This is for a shaft. Commencing 1-1/2 in. from the one end, file the shaft off flat for a distance of 1 in. Then cut a slot in the paddle-wheel, and place the shaft inside of the paddlewheel, with the flat part of the shaft turned to face the slot in the wheel. Pour metal into the slot to key the wheel on to the shaft.

The paddle-wheel is now ready to be fitted inside of the casing. It may be necessary to file some of the ends off the paddles, in order to let the paddle-wheel go into the casing. After it is fitted in, so that it will turn easily, place the entire machine in a vise, and bore three 1/4-in. holes, one in the lug, one in the projections, B, b, and the other in the base, as shown by the black dots in Fig. 6. Also bore the port-hole in projection B, and the exhaust hole in projection b, and two 1/4-in. holes at d, d, Fig. 6. Cut out a piece of gasket and fit it between the two castings. Then bolt the castings together, screw down, and connect to the boiler.

Using the Brace

The reader must either cast a pulley out of babbitt metal, or else go to a machinist and get a collar turned, with a boss and a set screw, and with three small screw holes around the edge. Cut out a small wood wheel and screw the collar fast to it, fasten it to the shaft of the turbine and turn on the steam. Then take a knife or a chisel, and, while it is running at full speed, turn the wheel to the shape desired.

Your turbine engine is now ready for work, and if instructions have been carefully followed, will do good service.


Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Crossbow Out of Wood

In making of this crossbow it is best to use maple for the stock, but if this wood cannot be procured, good straight-grained pine will do. The material must be 1-1/2 in. thick, 6 in. wide and a trifle over 3 ft. long.
The bow is made from straight-grained oak, ash, or hickory, 5/8 in. thick, 1 in. wide and 3 ft. long. A piece of oak, 3/8 in. thick, 1-1/2 in. wide and 6 ft. long, will be sufficient to make the trigger, spring and arrows. A piece of tin, some nails and a good cord will complete the materials necessary to make the crossbow.

Details of the Bow-Gun and Arrow Sling

The piece of maple or pine selected for the stock must be planed and sandpapered on both sides, and then marked and cut as shown in Fig. 1. A groove is cut for the arrows in the top straight edge 3/8 in. wide and 3/8 in. deep. The tin is bent and fastened on the wood at the back end of the groove where the cord slips out of the notch; this is to keep the edges from splitting.

A mortise is cut for the bow at a point 9-1/2 in. from the end of the stock, and one for the trigger 12 in. from the opposite end, which should be slanting a little as shown by the dotted lines. A spring, Fig. 2, is made from a good piece of oak and fastened to the stock with two screws. The trigger, Fig. 3, which is 1/4 in. thick, is inserted in the mortise in the position when pulled back, and adjusted so as to raise the spring to the proper height, and then a pin is put through both stock and trigger, having the latter swing quite freely. When the trigger is pulled, it lifts the spring up, which in turn lifts the cord off the tin notch.

The stick for the bow, Fig. 4, is dressed down from a point 3/4 in. on each side of the center line to 1/2 in. wide at each end. Notches are cut in the ends for the cord. The bow is not fastened in the stock, it is wrapped with a piece of canvas 1-1/2 in. wide on the center line to make a tight fit in the mortise. A stout cord is now tied in the notches cut in the ends of the bow making the cord taut when the wood is straight.

The design of the arrows is shown in Fig. 5 and they are made with the blades much thinner than the round part.

To shoot the crossbow, pull the cord back and down in the notch as shown in Fig. 6, place the arrow in the groove, sight and pull the trigger as in shooting an ordinary gun.

The arrow sling is made from a branch of ash about 1/2 in. in diameter, the bark removed and a notch cut in one end, as shown in Fig. 7. A stout cord about 2-1/2 ft. long is tied in the notch and a large knot made in the other or loose end. The arrows are practically the same as those used on the crossbow, with the exception of a small notch which is cut in them as shown in Fig. 8.

To throw the arrow, insert the cord near the knot in the notch of the arrow, then grasping the stick with the right hand and holding the wing of the arrow with the left, as shown in Fig. 9, throw the arrow with a quick slinging motion. The arrow may be thrown several hundred feet after a little practice.


—Contributed by O. E. Trownes, Wilmette, Ill.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Water Bike

Water bicycles afford fine sport, and, like many another device boys make, can be made of material often cast off by their people as rubbish. The principle material necessary for the construction of a water bicycle is oil barrels. Flour barrels will not do-they are not strong enough, nor can they be made perfectly airtight. The grocer can furnish you with oil barrels at a very small cost, probably let you have them for making a few deliveries for him. Three barrels are required for the water bicycle, although it can be made with but two. Figure 1 shows the method of arranging the barrels; after the manner of bicycle wheels.

Procure an old bicycle frame and make for it a board platform about 3 ft. wide at the rear end and tapering to about 2 ft. at the front, using cleats to hold the board frame, as shown at the shaded portion K. The construction of the barrel part is shown in Fig. 2. Bore holes in the center of the heads of the two rear barrels and also in the heads of the first barrel and put a shaft of wood, through the rear barrels and one through the front barrel, adjusting the side pieces to the shafts, as indicated.

Water, Bicycle Complete

Next place the platform of the bicycle frame and connections thereon. Going back to Fig. 1 we see that the driving chain passes from the sprocket driver L of the bicycle frame to the place downward between the slits in the platform to the driven sprocket on the shaft between the two barrels. Thus a center drive is made. The rear barrels are, fitted with paddles as at M, consisting of four pieces of board nailed and deated about the circumference of the barrels, as shown in Fig. 1.

Barrel Float for Bicycle

The new craft is now ready for a first voyage. To propel it, seat yourself on the bicycle seat, feet on the pedals, just as you would were you on a bicycle out in the street. The steering is effected by simply bending the body to the right or left, which causes the craft to dip to the inclined side and the affair turns in the dipped direction. The speed is slow at first, but increases as the force is generated and as one becomes familiar with the working of the affair. There is no danger, as the airtight barrels cannot possibly sink.

Another mode of putting together the set of barrels, using one large one in the rear and a small one in the front is presented in Fig, 3. These two barrels are empty oil barrels like the others. The head holes are bored and the proper wooden shafts are inserted and the entrance to the bores closed tight by calking with hemp and putty or clay. The ends of the shafts turn in the wooden frame where the required bores are made to receive the same. If the journals thus made are well oiled, there will not be much friction. Such a frame can be fitted with a platform and a raft to suit one's individual fancy built upon it, which can be paddled about with ease and safety on any pond. A sail can be rigged up by using a mast and some sheeting; or even a little houseboat, which will give any amount of pleasure, can be built.

Another Type of Float

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Miniature Windmill

The following description is how a miniature windmill was made, which gave considerable power for its size, even in a light breeze. Its smaller parts, such as blades and pulleys, were constructed of 1-in. sugar pine on account of its softness.

The eight blades were made from pieces 1 by 1-1/2 by 12 in. Two opposite edges were cut away until the blade was about 1/8 in. thick. Two inches
were left uncut at the hub end. They were then nailed to the circular face plate A, Fig. 1, which was 6 in. in diameter and 1 in. thick. The center of the hub was lengthened by the wooden disk, B, Fig. 1, which was nailed to the face plate. The shaft C, Fig. 1, was 1/4-in. iron rod, 2 ft. long, and turned in the bearings detailed in Fig. 2. J was a nut from a wagon bolt and was placed in the bearing to insure easy running. The bearing blocks were 3 in. wide, 1 in. thick and 3 in. high without the upper half. Both bearings were made in this manner.

Details of Miniature Windmill Construction

The shaft C was keyed to the hub of the wheel, by the method shown in Fig. 3. A staple, K, held the shaft from revolving in the hub. This method was also applied in keying the 5-in. pulley F, to the shaft, G, Fig. 1, which extended to the ground. The 2-1/2-in. pulley, I, Fig. 1, was keyed to shaft C, as shown in Fig. 4. The wire L was put through the hole in the axle and the two ends curved so as to pass through the two holes in the pulley, after which they were given a final bend to keep the pulley in place. The method by which the shaft C was kept from working forward is shown in Fig. 5. The washer M intervened between the bearing block and the wire N, which was passed through the axle and then bent to prevent its falling out. Two washers were placed on shaft C, between the forward bearing and the hub of the wheel to lessen the friction.

The bed plate D, Fig. 1, was 2 ft. long, 3 in. wide and 1 in. thick and was tapered from the rear bearing to the slot in which the fan E was nailed. This fan was made of 1/4-in. pine 18 by 12 in. and was cut the shape shown. The two small iron pulleys with screw bases, H, Fig. 1, were obtained for a small sum from a hardware dealer. Their diameter was 1-1/4 in. The belt which transferred the power from shaft C to shaft G was top string, with a section of rubber in it to take up slack. To prevent it from slipping on the two wooden pulleys a rubber band was placed in the grooves of each.

The point for the swivel bearing was determined by balancing the bed plate, with all parts in place, across the thin edge of a board. There a 1/4-in. hole was bored in which shaft G turned. To lessen the friction here, washers were placed under pulley F. The swivel bearing was made from two lids of baking powder cans. A section was cut out of one to permit its being enlarged enough to admit the other. The smaller one, 0, Fig. 6, was nailed top down with the sharp edge to the underside of the bed plate, so that the 1/4-in. hole for the shaft G was in the center. The other lid, G, was tacked, top down also, in the center of the board P, with brass headed furniture tacks, R, Fig. 6, which acted as a smooth surface for the other tin to revolve upon. Holes for shaft G were cut through both lids. Shaft G was but 1/4 in. in diameter, but to keep it from rubbing against the board P, a 1/2-in. hole was bored for it, through the latter.

The tower was made of four 1 by 1 in. strips, 25 ft. long. They converged from points on the ground forming an 8-ft. square to the board P at the top of the tower. This board was 12 in. square and the corners were notched to admit the strips as shown, Fig. 1. Laths were nailed diagonally between the strips to strengthen the tower laterally. Each strip was screwed to a stake in the ground so that by disconnecting two of them the other two could be used as hinges and the tower could be tipped over and lowered to the ground, as, for instance, when the windmill needed oiling. Bearings for the shaft G were placed 5 ft. apart in the tower. The power was put to various uses.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Gymnastics Bar - Parallel Bars

Parallel bars hold a high place in the affection of those who frequent gymnasiums as the best apparatus for development of the back and shoulder muscles, as well as a promoter of ease and grace of movement. The outdoor "gym" can have a set of these bars with very little more labor than was required for the horizontal bar.

The material required is as follows:
4 posts, preferably cedar, 4 in. square and 6 ft. long; 2 base pieces, 4 in. square and 5-1/2 ft. long; 2 cross braces, 2 by 4 in. by 2 ft. 2 in. long; 2 side braces, 2 by 4 in. by 7 ft. 8 in. long; 4 knee braces, 2 by 4 in. by 3 ft. 8 in. long; 2 bars of straight grained hickory, 2 by 3 in. by 10 ft. long; 4 wood screws, 6 in. long; 4 bolts, 8 in. long; 8 bolts, 7 in. long and 1 doz. large spikes.

Detail of the Parallel Bars

To make the apparatus, lay off the bases as shown in the end view and bevel the ends at an angle of 60 deg. Chisel out two notches 4 in. wide and 1 in. deep, beginning at a point 9 in. from either side of the center. These are to receive the lower ends of the posts. Bevel two sides of one end of each post down to the width of the finished bar—a little less than 2 in. Cut notches in these ends to receive the oval bars. Bevel the ends of the knee braces, as shown in the diagram, and fasten the lower ends to the beveled ends of the bases with the spikes. Fasten the upper ends of the knee braces to the uprights with the 8-in. bolts put through the holes bored for that purpose, and countersinking the heads. Lay the whole end flat on the ground and make a mark 2-1/2 ft. from the bottom of the base up along the posts, and fasten the end braces with their top edges flush with the marks, using four of the 7-in bolts. Finally toe-nail the base into the ends of the posts merely to hold them in position while the whole structure is being handled.

Two endpieces must be made. These sets or ends of the apparatus are to be buried in trenches dug to the depth of 2-1/2 ft., with the distance between the two inner surfaces of the posts, which face each other, of 7 ft. After the trenches are dug, additional long, shallow trenches must be made connecting the posts to receive the side braces. The function of these side braces is to hold both ends together solidly. It is necessary to bury these braces so they will be out of the way of the performer. The side braces are bolted to the posts just below the cross braces, so the bolts in both will not meet. The bars are dressed down so that a cross section is oval as shown in the end view. They are to be screwed to the notched ends of the uprights with the 6-in. screws. The holes should be countersunk so they can be filled with putty after the screws are in place. The bars should be well oiled with linseed oil to protect them from the weather, and in the winter they should be removed and stored.

Every piece of wood in this apparatus can be round and cut from trees, except the bars. If using mill-cut lumber, leave it undressed, and if using round timber leave the bark upon it as a protection from the weather. It is well to paint the entire apparatus, save the bars, before burying the lower part of the end pieces. The wood so treated will last for years, but even unpainted they are very durable. Be sure to tamp down the earth well about the posts. A smooth piece of ground should be selected on which to erect the apparatus.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Gymnastics Bar - The Horizontal Bar

Gymnastic apparatus costs money and needs to be housed, because it will not stand the weather. Gymnasiums are not always available for the average boy who likes exercise and who would like to learn the tricks on horizontal and parallel bars, horse and rings, which all young athletes are taught in regular gymnastic courses.
Any small crowd of boys—even two—having a few simple tools, a will to use them and the small amount of money required to buy the necessary wood, bolts and rope, can make a first class gymnasium. If trees are convenient, and some one can swing an axe, the money outlay will be almost nothing. The following plans are for material purchased from a mill squared and cut to length. To substitute small, straight trees for the squared timbers requires but little changes in the plans.

Adjustable Horizontal Bar

The most important piece of apparatus in the gymnasium is the horizontal bar. Most gymnasiums have two: one adjustable bar for various exercises and a high bar for gymnastic work. The outdoor gymnasium combines the two. The material required is as follows: 2 pieces of wood, 4 in. square by 9-1/2 ft. long; 4 pieces, 2 by 4 in. by 2 ft. long; 4 pieces, 1 by 7 in. by 6-1/2 ft. long; 4 filler pieces, 3/4 by 3 in. by 3 ft. 9 in. long and 1 piece, 2-1/2 in. square by 5 ft. 7 in. long. This latter piece is for the bar and should be of well seasoned, straight-grained hickory. It makes no difference what kind of wood is used for the other pieces, but it is best to use cedar for the heavy pieces that are set in the ground as it will take years for this wood to rot. Ordinary yellow pine will do very well. The four 7-in. boards should be of some hard wood if possible such as oak, hickory, maple, chestnut or ash. The other material necessary consists of 2 bolts, 1/2 in. in diameter and 7 in. long; 16 screws, 3 in. long; 4 heavy screw eyes with two 1/2-in. shanks; 50 ft. of heavy galvanized wire: 80 ft. of 1/4-in. manila rope and 4 pulley blocks. Four cleats are also required but these can be made of wood at home.
Draw a line on the four 7-in. boards along the side of each from end to end, 1-1/4-in. from one edge. Beginning at one end of each board make pencil dots on this line 5 in. apart for a distance of 3 ft. 4 in. Bore holes through the boards on these marks with a 9/15-in. bit. Fasten two of these boards on each post with the 3-in. screws, as shown in the top view of the post Fig. 1, forming a channel of the edges in which the holes were bored. Two of the filler pieces are fastened in each channel as shown, so as to make the space fit the squared end of the bar snugly. The ends of the boards with the holes should be flush with the top of the post. This will make each pair of holes in the 7-in. boards coincide, so the 1/2-in. bolt can be put through them and the squared end of the bar.

Select a level place where the apparatus is to be placed and dig two holes 6 ft. apart, each 3 ft. deep and remove all loose dirt. The ends of the posts not covered with the boards are set in these holes on bricks or small stones. The channels formed by the boards must be set facing each other with the inner surfaces of the posts parallel and 5 ft. 8 in. apart. The holes around the posts are filled with earth and well tamped.

The hickory piece which is to form the bar should be planed, scraped and sandpapered until it is perfectly smooth and round except for 3 in. at each end. Bore a 9/16-in. hole through each square end 1-1/4 in. from the end. The bar may be fastened at any desired height by slipping the 1/2-in. bolts through the holes bored in both the bar and channel.

Each post must be well braced to keep it rigid while a person is swinging on the bar. Four anchors are placed in the ground at the corners of an imaginary rectangle 9 by 16 ft., in the center of which the posts stand as shown in Fig. 2. Each anchor is made of one 2-ft. piece of wood, around the center of which four strands of the heavy galvanized wire are twisted, then buried to a depth of 2 ft., the extending ends of the wires coming up to the surface at an angle.

The heavy screw eyes are turned into the posts at the top and lengths of ropes tied to each. These ropes or guys pass through the pulley blocks, which are fastened to the projecting ends of the anchor wire, and return to the posts where they are tied to cleats. Do not tighten the guy ropes without the bar in place, as to do so will strain the posts in the ground. Do not change the elevation of the bar without slacking up on the ropes. It takes but little pull on the guy ropes to make them taut, and once tightened the bar will be rigid.

Ground Plan

Oil the bar when it is finished and remove it during the winter. It is well to oil the wood occasionally during the summer and reverse the bar at times to prevent its becoming curved. The wood parts should be well painted to protect them from the weather.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

Humane Rat Trap - How to Make a Rat Trap

1. Humane Rat Trap

A boy, while playing in the yard close to a grain house, dug a hole and buried an old-fashioned fruit jug or jar that his mother had thrown away, says the Iowa Homestead.
The top part of the jug was left uncovered as shown in the sketch, and a hole was broken in it just above the ground.
The boy then placed some shelled corn in the bottom, put a board on top, and weighted it with a heavy stone.
Humane Rat Trap
Humane Rat Trap

The jug had been forgotten for several days when a farmer found it, and, wondering what it was, he raised the board and found nine full-grown rats and four, mice in the bottom.
The trap has been in use for some time and is opened every day or two and never fails to have from one to six rats or mice in it.

2. Live Mouse Trap

A piece of an old bicycle tire and a glass fruit jar are the only materials required for making this trap.

Push one end of the tire into the hole, making sure that there is a space left at the end so that the mice can get in.
Then bend the other end down into a fruit jar or other glass jar.
Bait may be placed in the jar if desired, although this is not necessary.
Live Mouse Trap

Excerpt from the book: THE BOY MECHANIC - VOLUME I - 700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS - 1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO - POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

3. Buy Humane Rat Trap from Amazon


4. Youtube videos - How to Make Humane Rat Trap

How to Set a Sundial

The sundial is an instrument for measuring time by using the shadow of the sun. They were quite common in ancient times before clocks and watches were invented. At the present time they are used more as an ornamentation than as a means of measuring time, although they are quite accurate if properly constructed.
There are several different designs of sundials, but the most common, and the one we shall describe in this article, is the horizontal dial. It consists of a flat circular table, placed firmly on a solid pedestal and having a triangular plate of metal, Fig. 1, called the gnomon, rising from its center and inclined toward the meridian line of the dial at an angle equal to the latitude of the place where the dial is to be used.
The shadow of the edge of the triangular plate moves around the northern part of the dial from morning to afternoon, and thus supplies a rough measurement of the hour of the day.
The style or gnomon, as it always equals the latitude of the place, can be laid out as follows: Draw a line AB, Fig. 1, 5 in. long and at the one end erect a perpendicular BC, the height of which is taken from table No. 1. It may be necessary to interpolate for a given latitude, as for example, lat. 41 degrees-30'. From table No. 1 lat. 42 degrees is 4.5 in. and for lat. 40 degrees, the next smallest, it is 4.2 in.
Their difference is .3 in. for 2 degrees, and for 1 degrees it would be .15 in. For 30' it would be 1/2 of 1 degrees or .075 in. All added to the lesser or 40 degrees, we have 4.2+.15+.075 in.= 4.42 in. as the height of the line BC for lat. 41 degrees-30'. If you have a table of natural functions, the height of the line BC, or the style, is the base (5 in. in this case) times the tangent of the degree of latitude. Draw the line AD, and the angle BAD is the correct angle for the style for the given latitude. Its thickness, if of metal, may be conveniently from 1/8 to 1/4 in. ; or if of stone, an inch or two, or more, according to the size of the dial. Usually for neatness of appearance the back of the style is hollowed as shown.
The upper edges which cast the shadows must be sharp and straight, and for this size dial (10 in. in diameter) they should be about 7-1/2 in. long.

Details of Dial

TABLE No. 1.
Height of stile in inches for a 5in. base, for various latitudes

To layout the hour circle, draw two parallel lines AB and CD, Fig. 2, which will represent the base in length and thickness. Draw two semi-circles, using the points A and C as centers, with a radius of 5 in. The points of intersection with the lines AB and CD will be the 12 o'clock marks. A line EF drawn through the points A and C, and perpendicular to the base or style, and intersecting the semicircles, gives the 6 o'clock points. The point marked X is to be used as the center of the dial. The intermediate hour and half-hour lines can be plotted by using table No. 2 for given latitudes, placing them to the right or left of the 12-o'clock points. For latitudes not given, interpolate in the same manner as for the height of the style. The 1/4-hour and the 5 and 10-minute divisions may be spaced with the' eye or they may be computed.

Table No. 2.
Chords in inches for a 10 in. circle Sundial.

When placing the dial in position, care must be taken to get it perfectly level and have the style at right angles to the dial face, with its sloping side pointing to the North Pole. An ordinary compass, after allowing for the declination, will enable one to set the dial, or it may be set by placing it as near north and south as one may judge and comparing with a watch set at standard time. The dial time and the watch time should agree after the watch has been corrected for the equation of time from table No. 3, and for the difference between standard and local time, changing the position of the dial until an agreement is reached. Sun time and standard time agree only four times a year, April 16, June 15, Sept. 2 and Dec. 25, and on these dates the dial needs no correction. The corrections for the various days of the month can be taken from Table 3. The + means that the clock is faster, and the means that the dial is faster than the sun. Still another correction must be made which is constant for each given locality. Standard time is the correct time for longitude 750 New York, 900 Chicago, 1050 Denver and 1200 for San Francisco. Ascertain in degrees of longitude how far your dial is east or west of the nearest standard meridian and divide this by 15, reducing the answer to minutes and seconds, which will be the correction in minutes and seconds of time. If the dial is east of the meridian chosen, then the watch is slower; if west, it will be faster. This correction can be added to the values in table No. 3, making each value slower when it is east of the standard meridian and faster when it is west.

The style or gnomon with its base can be made in cement and set on a cement pedestal which has sufficient base placed in the ground to make it solid.

The design of the sundial is left to the ingenuity of the maker.

Table No. 3
Corrections in minutes to change.
Sun time to local mean time,- add those marked + subtract those
Marked - from Sundial lime.

—Contributed by J. E. Mitchell, Sioux City, Iowa.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

Caning Chairs - How to Cane a Chair

There are but few households that do not have at least one or two chairs without a seat or back. The same households may have some one who would enjoy recaning the chairs if he only knew how to do it, and also make considerable pin money by repairing chairs for the neighbors. If the following directions are carried out, new cane seats and backs can easily be put in chairs where they are broken or sagged to an uncomfortable position.

The first thing necessary is to remove the old cane. This can be done by turning the chair upside down and, with the aid of a sharp knife or chisel, cutting the cane between the holes. After this is done the old bottom can be pulled out. If plugs are found in any of the holes, they should be knocked out. If the beginner is in doubt about finding which holes along any curved sides should be used for the cane running nearly parallel to the edge, he may find it to his advantage to mark the holes on the under side of the frame before removing the old cane.

The worker should be provided with a small sample of the old cane. At any first-class hardware store a bundle of similar material may be secured.

The cane usually comes in lengths of about 15 ft. and each bundle contains

Three Stages of Weaving

enough to reseat several chairs. In addition to the cane, the worker should provide himself with a piece of bacon rind, a square pointed wedge, as shown in Fig. 1, and 8 or 10 round wood plugs, which are used for temporarily holding the ends of the cane in the holes.

First Layer of Strands

A bucket of water should be supplied in which to soak the cane just before weaving it. Several minutes before you are ready to begin work, take four or five strands of the cane, and, after having doubled them up singly into convenient lengths and tied each one into a single knot, put them into the water to soak. The cane is much more pliable and is less liable to crack in bending when worked while wet. As fast as the soaked cane is used, more of it should be put into the water.

Untie one of the strands which has been well soaked, put about 3 or 4 in. down through the hole at one end of what is to be the outside strand of one side and secure it in this hole by means of one of the small plugs mentioned. The plug should not be forced in too hard nor cut off, as it must be removed again.

 First Two Layers in Place

The other end of the strand should be made pointed and passed down through the hole at the opposite side, and, after having been pulled tight, held there by inserting another plug. Pass the end up through the next hole, then across and down, and hold while the second plug is moved to the last hole through which the cane was drawn. In the same manner proceed across the chair bottom. Whenever the end of one strand is reached, it should be held by a plug, and a new one started in the next hole as in the beginning. No plugs should be permanently removed until another strand of cane is through the same hole to hold the first strand in place. After laying the strands across the seat in one direction, put in another layer at right angles and lying entirely above the first layer. Both of these layers when in place appear as shown in one of the illustrations.

After completing the second layer, stretch the third one, using the same holes as for the first layer. This will make three layers, the first being hidden by the third while the second layer is at right angles to and between the first and third. No weaving has been done up to this time, nothing but stretching and threading the cane through the holes. The cane will have the appearance shown in Fig. 3. The next thing to do is to start the cane across in the same direction as the second layer and begin the weaving. The top or third layer strands should be pushed toward the end from which the weaving starts, so that the strand being woven may be pushed down between the first and third layers and up again between pairs. The two first strands of the fourth layer are shown woven in Fig. 3. During the weaving, the strands should be lubricated with the rind of bacon to make them pass through with ease. Even with this lubrication, one can seldom weave more than half way across the seat with the pointed end before finding it advisable to pull the remainder of the strand through. After finishing this fourth layer of strands, it is quite probable that each strand will be about midway between its two neighbors instead of lying close to its mate as desired, and here is where the square and pointed wedge is used. The wedge is driven down between the proper strands to move them into place.

Start at one corner and weave diagonally, as shown in Fig. 4, making sure that the strand will slip in between the two which form the corner of the square in each case. One more weave across on the diagonal and the seat will be finished except for the binding, as shown in Fig. 5. The binding consists of one strand that covers the row of holes while it is held down with another strand, a loop over the first being made every second or third hole as desired. It will be of great assistance to keep another chair with a cane bottom at hand to examine while recaning the first chair.

—Contributed by M. R. W.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

Rising Card Trick - Card Tricks Revealed

A rising card trick can be accomplished with very little skill by using the simple device illustrated. The only things needed are four ordinary playing cards and a short rubber band. Pass one end of the rubber band through one card and the other end through the other card, as shown in the illustration, drawing the cards close together and fastening the ends by putting a pin through them.
The remaining two cards are pasted to the first two so as to conceal the pins and ends of the rubber band.

Card Slips from the Pack

Put the cards with the rubber band in a pack of cards; take any other card from the pack and show it to the audience in such a way that you do not see and know the card shown. Return the card to the pack, but be sure and place it between the cards tied together with the rubber band.
Grasp the pack between your thumb and finger tightly at first, and by gradually loosening your hold the card previously shown to the audience will slowly rise out of the pack.

—Contributed by Tomi O'Kawara, San Francisco, Cal.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

The Growing Flower Magic Trick

This trick is performed with a wide-mouthed jar which is about 10 in. high. If an earthern jar of this kind is not at hand, use a glass fruit jar and cover it with black cloth or paper, so the contents cannot be seen.

Flower Grows Instantly

Two pieces of wire are bent as shown in Fig. 1 and put together as in Fig. 2.
These wires are put in the jar, about one-third the way down from the top, with the circle centrally located.
The wires can be held in place by carefully bending the ends, or using small wedges of wood.

Cut a wire shorter in length than the height of the jar and tie a rose or several flowers on one end.
Put a cork in the bottom of the jar and stick the opposite end of the wire from where the flowers are tied through the circle of the two wires and into the cork.
The dotted lines in Fig. 3 show the position of the wires and flowers.

To make the flowers grow in an instant, pour water into the jar at one side of the wide mouth.
The cork will float and carry the wire with the flowers attached upward, causing the flowers to grow, apparently, in a few seconds' time.
Do not pour in too much water to raise the flowers so far that the wire will be seen.

—Contributed by A. S. Macdonald, Oakland, Calif.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Rabbit Trap

A good serviceable rabbit trap can be made by sinking a common dry goods box in the ground to within 6 in. of its top. A hole 6 or 7 in. square is cut in each end level with the earth's surface and boxes 18 in. long that will just fit are set in, hung on pivots, with the longest end outside, so they will lie horizontal. A rabbit may now look through the two tubes, says the American Thresherman.

Rabbit in the Trap

The bait is hung on a string from the top of the large box so that it may be seen and smelled from the outside. The rabbit naturally goes into the holes and in this trap there is nothing to awaken his suspicion.
He smells the bait, squeezes along past the center of the tube, when it tilts down and the game is shot into the pit, the tube righting itself at once for another catch.
The top and sides of the large box may be covered with leaves, snow or anything to hide it. A door placed in the top will enable the trapper to take out the animals.
By placing a little hay or other food in the bottom of the box the trap need not be visited oftener than once a week.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

Rolling Can Toy - Handmade Toys for Kids

Secure a tin can, or a pasteboard box, about 2 in. in diameter and 2 in. or more in height.
Punch two holes A, Fig. 1, in the cover and the bottom, 1/4 in. from the center and opposite each other.
Then cut a curved line from one hole to the other, as shown at B. A piece of lead, which can be procured from a plumber, is cut in the shape shown in Fig. 2, the size being 1 by 1-1/8 by 1-1/4 in. An ordinary rubber band is secured around the neck of the piece of lead, as shown in Fig. 3, allowing the two ends to be free.

Rolling Can Toy

The pieces of tin between the holes A, Fig. 1, on both top and bottom, are turned up as in Fig. 4, and the ends of the bands looped over them.
The flaps are then turned down on the band and the can parts put together as in Fig. 5.
The can may be decorated with brilliant colored stripes, made of paper strips pasted on the tin. When the can is rolled away from you, it winds up the rubber band, thus storing the propelling power which makes it return.

—Contributed by Mack Wilson, Columbus, O.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make a Paper Balloon - Easy Science Projects

Balloons made spherical, or designed after the regular aeronaut's hot-air balloon, are the best kind to make. Those having an odd or unusual shape will not make good ascensions, and in most cases the paper will catch fire from the torch and burn before they have flown very far. The following description is for making a tissue-paper balloon about 6 ft. high.

Paper Balloon; Pattern and Parts to Make Balloon

The paper may be selected in several colors, and the gores cut from these, pasted "in alternately, will produce a pretty array of colors when the balloon is in flight. The shape of a good balloon is shown in Fig. 1. The gores for a 6-ft. balloon should be about 8 ft. long or about one-third longer than the height of the balloon. The widest part of each gore is 16 in. The widest place should be 53-1/2 in. from the bottom end, or a little over half way from the bottom to the top. The bottom of the gore is one-third the width of the widest point. The dimensions and shape of each gore are shown in Fig. 2.

The balloon is made up of 13 gores pasted together, using about 1/2-in. lap on the edges. Any good paste will do—one that is made up of flour and water well cooked will serve the purpose. If the gores have been put together right, the pointed ends will close up the top entirely and the wider bottom ends will leave an opening about 20 in. in diameter. A light wood hoop having the same diameter as the opening is pasted to the bottom end of the gores. Two cross wires are fastened to the hoop, as shown in Fig. 3. These are to hold the wick ball, Fig. 4, so it will hang as shown in Fig. 5. The wick ball is made by winding wicking around a wire, having the ends bent into hooks as shown.

The balloon is filled with hot air in a manner similar to that used with the ordinary cloth balloon. A small trench or fireplace is made of brick having a chimney over which the mouth of the paper balloon is placed. Use fuel that will make heat with very little smoke. Hold the balloon so it will not catch fire from the flames coming out of the chimney. Have some alcohol ready to pour on the wick ball, saturating it thoroughly. When the balloon is well filled carry it away from the fireplace, attach the wick ball to the cross wires and light it.

In starting the balloon on its flight, take care that it leaves the ground as nearly upright as possible. —Contributed by R. E. Staunton.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

Moving a Coin Through Glass Trick

Place a penny or a dime on a tablecloth, towel or napkin and cover it over with a glass in such a way that the glass will rest upon two 25 or 50 cent pieces as shown in the sketch.
The coin is made to come forth without touching it or sliding a stick under the edge of the glass. It is only necessary to claw the cloth near the glass with the nail of the forefinger.

Removing the Coin

The cloth will produce a movement that will slide the coin to the edge and from under the glass.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

Chinese Kite - How to Make a Chinese Kite

How to Make and Fly a Chinese Kite

The Chinese boy is not satisfied with simply holding the end of a kite string and running up and down the block or field trying to raise a heavy paper kite with a half pound of rags for a tail.
He makes a kite as light as possible without any tail which has the peculiar property of being able to move in every direction.
Sometimes an expert can make one of these kites travel across the wind for several hundred feet; in fact, I have seen boys a full block apart bring their kites together and engage in a combat until one of their kites floated away with a broken string, or was punctured by the swift dives of the other, and sent to earth, a wreck.

The Chinese boy makes his kite as follows:

From a sheet of thin but tough tissue paper about 20 in. square, which he folds and cuts along the dotted line, as shown in Fig. 1, he gets a perfectly square kite having all the properties of a good flyer, light and strong. He shapes two pieces of bamboo, one for the backbone and one for the bow. The backbone is flat, 1/4 by 3/32 in. and 18 in. long. This he smears along one side with common boiled rice. Boiled rice is one of the best adhesives for use on paper that can be obtained and the Chinese have used it for centuries while we are just waking up to the fact that it makes fine photo paste. Having placed the backbone in position, paste two triangular pieces of paper over the ends of the stick to prevent tearing. The bow is now bent, and the lugs extending from the sides of the square paper are bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. If the rice is quite dry or mealy it can be smeared on and will dry almost immediately, therefore no strings are needed to hold the bow bent while the paste dries.

Parts of a Chinese Kite

After the sticks are in position the kite will appear as shown in Fig. 2. The dotted lines show the lugs bent over the ends of the bow and pasted down. Figure 3 shows how the band is put on and how the kite is balanced. This is the most important part and cannot be explained very well. This must be done by experimenting and it is enough to say that the kite must balance perfectly. The string is fastened by a slip-knot to the band and moved back and forth until the kite flies properly, then it is securely fastened.

A reel is next made. Two ends—the bottoms of two small peach baskets will do—are fastened to a dowel stick or broom handle, if nothing better is at hand. These ends are placed about 14 in. apart and strips nailed between them as shown in Fig. 4, and the centers drawn in and bound with a string. The kite string used is generally a heavy packing thread. This is run through a thin flour or rice paste until it is thoroughly coated, then it is run through a quantity of crushed glass. The glass should be beaten up fine and run through a fine sieve to make it about the same as No.2 emery. The particles should be extremely sharp and full of splinters. These particles adhere to the pasted string and when dry are so sharp that it cannot be handled without scratching- the fingers, therefore the kite is flown entirely from the reel. To wind the string upon the reel, all that is necessary is to lay one end of the reel stick in the bend of the left arm and twirl the other end between the fingers of the right hand.

A Chinese boy will be flying a gaily colored little kite from the roof of a house (if it be in one of the large cities where they have flat-roofed houses) and a second boy will appear on the roof of another house perhaps 200 ft. away. Both have large reels full of string, often several hundred yards of it. The first hundred feet or so is glass-covered string, the balance, common packing thread, or glass-covered string. As soon as the second boy has his kite aloft, he begins maneuvering to drive it across the wind and over to the first kite. First, he pays out a large amount of string, then as the kite wobbles to one side with its nose pointing toward the first kite, he tightens his line and commences a steady quick pull. If properly done his kite crosses over to the other and above it. The string is now payed out until the second kite is hanging over the first one's line. The wind now tends to take the second kite back to its parallel and in so doing makes a turn about the first kite's string. If the second kite is close enough, the first tries to spear him by swift dives. The second boy in the meantime is see-sawing his string and presently the first kite's string is cut and it drifts away.

It is not considered sport to haul the other fellow's kite down as might be done and therefore a very interesting battle is often witnessed when the experts clash their kites. —Contributed by S. C. Bunker, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS

How to Make an Ammeter

The outside case of this instrument is made of wood taken from old cigar boxes with the exception of the back. If carefully and neatly made, the finished instrument will be very satisfactory. The measurements here given need not be strictly followed out, but can be governed by circumstances. The case should first be made and varnished and while this is drying, the mechanical parts can be put together.

Details of an Ammeter

The back is a board 3/8 in. thick, 6-1/2 in. wide and 6-3/4 in. long. The outer edges of this board are chamfered. The other parts of the case are made from the cigar box wood which should be well sandpapered to remove the labels. The sides are 3-1/4 in. wide and 5 in. long; the top and bottom, 3-1/4 in. wide and 4-1/2 in. long. Glue a three cornered piece, A, Fig. 1, at each end on the surface that is to be the inside of the top and bottom pieces. After the glue, is set, fasten the sides to the pieces with glue, and take care that the pieces are all square. When the glue is set, this square box is well sandpapered, then centered, and fastened to the back with small screws turned into each three-cornered piece.

The front, which is a piece 5-1/4 in. wide and 6-1/2 in. long, has a circular opening cut near the top through which the graduated scale may be seen. This front is centered and fastened the same as the back, and the four outside edges, as well as the edges around the opening, are rounded. The whole case can now be cleaned and stained with a light mahogany stain and varnished. Cut another piece of board, B, Figs. 2 and 3, to just fit inside the case and rest on the ends of the three-cornered pieces, A, and glue to this board two smaller pieces, C, 3 in. square, with the grain of the wood in alternate directions to prevent warping. All of these pieces are made of the cigar box wood. Another piece, D, 3/8 in. thick and 3 in. square, is placed on the other pieces and a U-shaped opening 1-3/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. high sawed out from all of the pieces as shown. The piece D is attached to the pieces C with four 1/2-in. pieces 2-5/8 in. long.

A magnet is made from a soft piece of iron, E, about 3/8 in. thick, 1-1/4 in. wide and 2-3/4 in. long. Solder across each end of the iron a piece of brass wire, F, and make a turn in each end of the wires, forming an eye for a screw. These wires are about 2-1/2 in. long. Wind three layers of about No. 14 double cotton-covered copper wire on the soft iron and leave about 5 or 6 in. of each end unwound for connections.

The pointer is made as shown in Fig. 5 from 1/16-in. brass wire filed to make a point at both ends for a spindle. About 1/2 in. from each end of this wire are soldered two smaller brass wires which in turn are soldered to a strip of light tin 1/4 in. wide and 2-5/8 in. long. The lower edge of this tin should be about 1/2 in. from the spindle. The pointer is soldered to the spindle 1/4 in. from one end. All of these parts should be brass with the exception of the strip of tin. Another strip of tin, the same size as the first, is soldered to two brass wires as shown in Fig. 4. These wires should be about 1 in. long.

The spindle of the pointer swings freely between two bars of brass, G, 1/16 in. thick, 1/4 in. wide and 2-1/2 in. long. A small hole is countersunk in one of the bars to receive one end of the spindle and a hole 1/8 in. in diameter is drilled in the other and a thumb nut taken from the binding-post of an old battery soldered over the hole so the screw will pass through when turned into the nut. The end of the screw is countersunk to receive the other end of the spindle. A lock nut is necessary to fasten the screw when proper adjustment is secured. A hole is drilled in both ends of the bars for screws to fasten them in place. The bar with the adjusting screw is fastened on the back so it can be readily adjusted through the hole H, bored in the back. The pointer is bent so it will pass through the U-shaped cut-out and up back of the board B. A brass pin is driven in the board B to hold the pointer from dropping down too far to the left. Place the tin, Fig. 4, so it will just clear the tin, Fig. 5, and fasten in place. The magnet is next placed with the ends of the coil to the back and the top just clearing the tin strips. Two binding screws are fitted to the bottom of the back and connected to the extending wires from the coil.

The instrument is now ready for calibrating. This is done by connecting it in series with another standard ammeter which has the scale marked in known quantities. In this series is also connected a variable resistance and a battery or some other source of current supply. The resistance is now adjusted to show .5 ampere on the standard ammeter and the position of the pointer marked on the scale. Change your resistance to all points and make the numbers until the entire scale is complete.

When the current flows through the coil, the two tinned strips of metal are magnetized, and being magnetized by the same lines of force they are both of the same polarity. Like poles repel each other, and as the part Fig. 4 is not movable, the part carrying the pointer moves away. The stronger the current, the greater the magnetism of the metal strips, and the farther apart they will be forced, showing a greater defection of the pointer.

—Contributed by George Heimroth, Richmond Hill, L. I.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS